NU 545 Unit 2 Essay

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NU 545 Unit 2 Study Guide


1. Review the anatomy of the brain. Which portion is responsible for keeping you awake, controlling thought, speech, emotions and behavior, maintaining balance and posture?
- Ch. 15 p. 454 Box 15-3
- Brainstem- midbrain, medulla oblongata, and pons
Reticular Formation-Collection of nuclei within brainstem that maintains wakefulness and works in conjunction with the cerebral cortex and together they are known as the reticular activating system. P. 454

- 3 parts of the brain: forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
- Expression of affect (emotional and behavioral states) is mediated by extensive connections with the limbic system and prefrontal cortex.

- p. 456 The prefrontal area is responsible for
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Usually lasts seconds to days, and sometimes up to 3 months.
Somatic pain is a superficial, arising from connective tissue, muscle or bone, and skin. Visceral Pain refers to pain in internal organs and the lining of body cavities with an aching, gnawing, throbbing, or intermittent cramping quality.
Referred pain is pain that is felt in an area removed or distant from its point of origin-the area of referred pain is supplied by the same spinal segment as the actual site of pain.

- Chronic pain is usually defined as lasting at least 3 months and lasting well




beyond the expected healing time following the initial onset of tissue damage or injury. Specific (i.e., intervertebral disk degeneration) and non-specific low back pain
(not attributable to a specific pathologic source) are global, common, chronic, and disabling pain conditions.
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is associated with injury to muscle, facia, and tendons and includes myositis, fibrositis, myofibrositis, myalgia, fibromyalgia, and muscle strain.
Chronic postoperative pain occurs in some individuals and includes complex regional pain syndrome, phantom limb pain, chronic donor site pain, postthoracotomy pain syndrome, post mastectomy pain syndrome, and joint arthroplasty pain.
Neuropathic pain results from primary injury to the peripheral

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