Essay on National Culture Influences on International Management

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1. Introduction
1.1 Definitions of Culture
Culture can be simply considered as "the way we do things around here", said Cartwright (2004, pp.85). A further understanding given by Deresky (2006, pp.83) is that a culture is composed by 'shared values, understandings, assumptions, and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of a society and passed on to succeeding generations'. It can be seen that culture is formed by lifestyle and knowledge acquisition of people from a certain region, and then it stands for a general preference, opinion, and value of them. So that's why people from the same place may have much in common.
1.2 The role of Culture in Management Decisions
As culture may impact people's
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In low power cultures, the gap between high level and low level position has been shrinked.
Under such circumstances, power distance may influent organisation communication and employee relationship. According to Madlock's work (2012), Mexican employees, working in high power distance culture, feel uninvolved, disengaged and burdensome (Bartoo & Sias, 2004) in conversations with supervisors, in other words, they are suffering communication apprehension. Despite its impact on HR management, power distance usually has connection with corruption.( Getz and Volkema, 2001) For example, doing business in China usually need to deal Guanxi with authorities, where power is gathered, because it will make transactions operated more smoothly and resources more easier to gather.
2.2 Individualism Versus Collectivism
Individualism and collectivism dimension "describes the relationship between the individual and the collectivity that prevails in a given society" (Hofstede, 1980,pp.148,2001,pp.209). In individualism society, individuals are less bound with others and their self-achievements are highly
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