Populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), were first found in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1988 (Hebert et al., 1989). This species is native to the Caspian, Aral, and Black Seas and the rivers that drain into them but has spread throughout Europe, principally during the 18th century. Since it is restricted to estuarine and freshwater habitats, it is presumed that it was introduced into North America by ballast waters of transoceanic vessels. Based on the substantial amount of genetic variation found in these initial populations, as estimated from electrophoretic variation of allozymes, the colonization of the Great Lakes was by a large number of immigrants and not just a few founders
Zebra mussels which colonized Lake St Clair and spread through the Great Lakes are still a large problem for today's industries mainly affecting water sanitation and power generating plants. Zebra Mussels are found throughout the Great Lakes regions, they are native to Black Sea and were introduced to the Great Lakes through ships carrying ballast water ( http://www.invadingspecies.com/invaders/invertebrates/zebra-and-quagga-mussels/ ). They are able to reproduce and colonize easily due to their generalist nature. Zebra Mussels tend to clog intake screens in power generation plants in some cases company have to spend millions on removing these organisms and even more on just monitoring them. The impact of Zebra Mussels in Ontario alone cost $75-91 million a year("How Government Combats Invasive Species." Ontario.ca. Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, 8 May 2014. Web. 8 July 2015. . ) . They also clog pipes in the water supply system affecting not only water sanitation plants but also everyday homeowners who live near waterfront. Not only has that but due to introduction of Zebra Mussel the native clam population reduced significantly. And they filter water to where plankton are removed from ecosystem altering the food web dynamics ( http://www.invadingspecies.com/invaders/invertebrates/zebra-and-quagga-mussels/). In turn
Today, what once was a scenic lake is covered in chest-high weeds. “ Boaters and fisherman enjoy going to Lake Bridgeport during the summer. But in the summer of 2013 the boat ramps were unusable so the number of residents going to the lake dropped. There are dead fish floating to the shoreline as well as many other wildlife animals. The lake tested positive for Zebra Mussel larva, which is shell like creatures that are very sharp and stick to boats, anchors and docks. The Mussels are very dangerous for the lake environment, but they also eat bacteria so they could help the lake water clear up. If no water is drained out of Lake Bridgeport then the residents of Eagle Mountain Lake and Lake Worth could possibly run out of drinking water.
As well as pollution, invasive species are damaging the lake ecosystems and food chains, made fragile by pollution and overfishing. The introduction of a new species throws off the balance of food chains. Some common invasive species include the sea lamprey, Asian carp, and zebra mussels, among many others. Zebra mussels have dramatically influenced and affected stable food chains by reducing the amount of zooplankton and phytoplankton. This presents a problem, as fish mostly feed on the drifters, and so they go hungry and die, leaving no food for larger fish to prey on. In addition to underwater disruption, it affects us as well, but only slightly. Plankton and algae especially are the most productive aquatic producers of oxygen, and by the decreasing population, we lose oxygen as well. The sea lamprey is also a problem, though it is not so influential to ecosystems as the zebra mussel.
Some examples include the zebra mussel, sea lamprey, and Asian carp. The zebra mussel first came to the great lakes by traveling in the ballast water of a transoceanic vessel. Over the years, it has spread into the entire great lakes system. They are very dense with contaminants, which causes predators to stray away from them and not digest them. The zebra mussel has had many negative impacts on the ecosystem. A zebra mussel can attach themselves firmly to any solid object, which has caused water intake and discharge pipes to clog. Some other impacts include suppressing native mussels, over clarifying the water, and stripping water from various plankton that native fish eat. Sea lamprey are another invasive species in the great lakes. A sea lamprey is an eel like fish that sucks bodily fluids from other fish. They have traveled to the great lakes on their own by swimming up the Hudson River. They have contributed to the collapse of the whitefish and lake trout fisheries. Some prevention actions have been put in place and include chemical treatments of spawning
In addition to inbreeding and demographic stochasticity, it has long been known that invasive species can cause drastic and often irreparable changes to native ecosystems, including the decline of indigenous species of both fauna and flora. In fact, invasive species have directly contributed to the decline of an estimated 42 percent of threatened and endangered species in the United States (Dilthey, 2017). Some of these invasive species are widely known, such as Dreissena polymorpha, the Zebra mussel, which has endangered at least 30 species of mussel, including Higgins Eye Pearlymussel (Magher, n.d.). Others are not so commonly known, like Penaeus monodon, the Black Tiger shrimp, which was first found in the Gulf of Mexico as recently as 2006 (Buchele, 2006).
In the article published by the Detroit Free Press “How do you get rid 750 trillion mussels in the Great Lakes” written by Kathleen Lavey, the author discusses how there is currently no technology that would help on a large enough scale to kill all of the invasive mussels. Lavey talks about how there are paints that contain chili peppers which muscles don’t atach to. Companies use this paint on intake pipes so they do not get clogged with muscles. Lavey also discusses 060Bio which a piece of foam that is infused with copper and zinc ions which muscles find unsavory. They place these on boats, that way boats don’t get infested with muscles and move them around the lakes. There are many different ideas out there but they don’t have a method that
Studies have repeatedly shown that as oxygen concentrations decrease, the abundance and diversity of fish decrease (Breitburg). Fish kills, in which large numbers of dead and dying fish float to the surface or wash onto shore, are probably the most dramatic and publicly visible manifestation of hypoxia and nutrient over-enrichment of coastal waters(Breitburg). In addition to mass mortalities that are easily observed, high mortality of fish lacking a swim bladder can occur leaving little or no visible evidence of fish at the surface or littering beaches (Breitburg). With no fish, shrimp, or crabs the Louisiana fishing market takes a huge hit that the economy feels in a major way. The gulf accounts for almost one-fifth of the countries fishing landings, which total to be three billion dollars (Petrolia). Fishing is not only a major part of Louisiana’s economy but also its culture. Without wildlife in our waters microorganism are given more opportunity to grow leading to bacteria infected waters. These bacteria infected waters could cause major health risks for those who come in contact with
At the bottom of the Missouri's streams lives the Lampsilis siliquoidea mussels where it lives out its life cycle. How it lives it's brilliant life cycle is first by luring a smallmouth bass over to it by copycatting the movement and the appearance of a Tartars fish tail which is actually the skin of the mussels which has over time evolved. Once the bass notices the lure and strikes the lure the muscle spews out a white cloud into the bass's mouth and gills which happen to be thousands of larvaes where they will live off the bass for nutrients. Its also safer for them to transition from larvae into juvenile mussels. After a couple of weeks the young mussels abandon the bass dropping leaving the basses unharmed and unaware of what happened making
Whether it's plants, bugs, or aquatic animals, invasive species are all over the Finger Lakes area. However, in order to prevent the spread of the harmful organisms in our area the Department of Environmental conservation is calling on you. "Knowing that you are a potential carrier of invasive species is the first step. Knowing that when you recreate, when you use a kayak, a canoe, when you use a boat, when you're swimming to clean, drain,dry," explains Coordinator for Finger Lakes PRISM, Hilary Mosher.
In response to invasive species threats, Ontario’s Ministry of Natural Resources, Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment and Transportation developed the Ontario Invasive Species Strategic Plan. Its objectives are to prevent new intruders from disembarking and subsisting in Ontario, to reduce and reverse the extent of remaining invasive species and decrease its damaging impacts. Ballast water is a well-known source for the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species in the Canadian water bodies. In response, Canada and the United States placed strict regulations governing ocean-going ships and their ballast water. For example, requiring inspection and the flushing of tanks with salt water before entering other waterways. Collectively,
Species have been invading the Great Lakes for a very long time. “Scientists estimate that there are more than 185 invasive species in the Great Lakes today.” One of the species that invade the Great Lakes is the Round Goby. This animal usually feeds on fish eggs, Yellow Perch, Bass, and Walleye. The Round Goby is an invasive species because it kills other species, or it can make them extinct. Another example of invasive specie is Quagga Mussel. The Quagga Mussel usually sits in lakes or oceans, building up over a long period of time, this leads to millions, and millions
Eurasian milfoil or Myriophyllum spicatum is an aquatic invasive plant that can be found throughout the Chicagoland area and in surrounding bodies of water. This plant can be a hinderance to swimming, boating, and fishing because of their thick, tangled stems and mats of vegetation. According to the Minnesota Sea Grant, Eurasian milfoil also overcrowd a body of water which leaves little room for the plants native to the Great Lakes. One prediction is that if the Eurasian milfoil is not stopped, a reduction of biodiversity may result in Chicago and the areas surrounding it. If this was to occur, the ecosystems of the Midwest region would be significantly impacted in a negative way.
Invasive species have been brought into the United States, some on purpose to help fill a needed use and then latter getting out of control and creating a mess of what they have done to waterways,
With the increasing amount of disturbed habitats, invasive species could soon become the leading cause of ecological degradation (Soulé & Orians, 2001). Invasive species can alter habitats in a number of ways. Changes in the physical structure of the land are the most visually obvious. Examples include narrowing stream channels, reducing sand supply to dunes, and stabilizing surfaces such as mudflats, and each invasive species goes about these changes in their own way. For instance, the burrowing activities of Australian isopods cause the banks of tidal channels to collapse, leading to the widening of channels and the loss of vegetated salt marsh (Cox, 1999). On the other hand, Japanese mussels that have invaded the San Diego area are stabilizing mudflats. Although reaching Southern California in the 1960s,