Naval Air Ground Task Force

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On July 1, 1946 the first atomic bomb test since the end of World War II occurred over the island of Bikini Atoll. Lieutenant General Roy S. Geiger, United States Marine Corps observed the test and recognized that atomic bombs could render amphibious assaults useless due to the dense concentration of troops, ships, and supplies at the beachheads. To reduce the possibility of nuclear bombs being used to combat amphibious assaults, dispersion would be crucial; however, this would lead to a slower consolidation of forces ashore. New ways to achieve dispersion without sacrificing speed were studied and the helicopter was deemed the most applicable to the future of amphibious operations. On December 1, 1947 Marine Helicopter Squadron One…show more content…
Marine Helicopter Squadron One and Marine Corps schools developed Amphibious Operations-Employment of helicopters (Tentative) or Phib-31 which was the first manual for helicopter operations. In 1948, HMX-1 received its first helicopters: the Sikorsky HO3S-1 and the Piasecki HRP-1. The four seated HO3S-1 was a modified version of the Sikorsky S-51and was used for utility and training while the HRP-1 was used for trial and experimental purposes. Regrettably for HMX-1, it was not until 1955 that it received its first Sikorsky HR2S which was a helicopter capable of lifting heavy loads (by 1950s standards). The HR2S was crucial to the amphibious doctrine because it had a greater lifting capacity than its earlier predecessors. HMX-1’s secondary mission was to test observation helicopters for identifying enemy movement and the use of gunfire. For this mission, HMX-1 was given a small HTL-2 which is a small militarized version of the Bell 47D. The Marine Corps hopped on the opportunity for this mission and rapidly established an innovative reputation for its use of combat helicopters. Helicopters were largely used only as medevacs in the Korean War. In the years ensuing the Korean War, General Alexander Vandegrift, the 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps summoned a board that became known as the Hogaboom Board. The Hogaboom Board was named after Major General Robert E. Hogaboom who was chairman of the board. The
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