Hunter/Gatherers secured their own food supply and moved from place to place as needed to maintain it. They clothed themselves in the furs of animals that they had killed for food. They got the name, Stone Age, from tools made from stones.
Hunting was important to the early man. This was how they would find food and the necessities that they needed from animals. In document #1, the cave painting found in Lascaux, France, shows a herd of deer attacking a group of people that have bows and arrows. The painting shows the human figures using the bows and arrows to attack and kill the deer. This evidence may suggest that this group of people are nomadic; meaning they migrate to areas where a food source is available. A quote by Jacob Bronowski’s documentary, The Ascent of Man, in
By examining Neanderthal tools and utensils one can gain an understanding of the complexity of
In a skeleton found in Asia, the discovery of a hyoid bone in the the throat raised the question of whether or not Neanderthals had language capabilities. There has been much debate over this and many different theories, but the most widely accepted is that they were capable of producing human speech sounds, but whether or not they used this speech to communicate in any kind of language is still largely up for debate. In height, Neanderthals were roughly about the same size as modern humans, but did not live as long as modern humans. A Neanderthal who lived into his or her 40's was considered to be long lived, which is comparatively short to our much longer lives of roughly double that. Genetically, Neaderthals and humans differ in their DNA structure both in the mitochondrial DNA and in the nuclear DNA. The significance of the DNA evidence is that it is crucial in determining whether remains that are found are truly Neanderthal or an older hominin relative.
They also were scroungers who even ate dead animals that they found left by other larger predators.
The Neanderthals lived in areas ranging from Western Europe through central Asia from about 200,000 to between 36,000 and 24,000 years ago. The Neanderthals lived in groups of 30 to 50 individuals, they invented many of the tool types that were to be perfected by fully sapient peoples, they had weapons adequate to deal with both the cave lion and cave bear, they used body paint, buried their dead. Neanderthal Man survived through the Ice Age. They are thought to have had fire. Neanderthals lived side by side with modern humans for over 10,000 years.
Upon investigating the bones Schmerling did not recognize them as a distinct species (Sawyer et al. 2007).The first true Neanderthal was discovered in the Neander Valley, near Dusseldorf in 1856 by a group of miners who were blasting out a cave in the area. When the crew uncovered archaic bones they contacted a local schoolteacher, Johann Karl Fuhlrott. Fuhlrott was the first to recognize the fossils as a new species. In 1864, William King in the Quarterly Journal of Science identified this new species as Homo neanderthalensis after the location of its unearthing (Sawyer et al. 2007).
Additional interesting facts about Neanderthals include: They had the same gene associated with language that modern humans have, but the anatomy of their vocal chords would not allow them to make certain sounds. They found a way to make adhesive through a complex thermal process, where they extracted pitch from stones. Amongst the artifacts found from the Neanderthal time period there are bones which appear to have been made into instruments. They were the first in history to have buried their dead. It appears they may have even marked their graves and perhaps had burial rituals. Finally, it has been discovered that at least some of the Neanderthals had pale skin and red hair. Qualities that may have helped them to absorb vitamin D which in
Excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Paleolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. The Ancient peoples of pre-Roman Italy – such as the Umbrians, the Latins (from which the Romans emerged), Volsci, Samnites, the Celts and the Ligures which inhabited northern Italy, and many others – were Indo-European peoples; the main historic peoples of non-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans, the Elymians and Sicani in Sicily and the prehistoric Sardinians.
This lecture connection made was made to the Article “Neanderthal were people, too “by Jon Mooallem. Introducing his story to the audience about Gorham’s cave and the knowledge behind his excavation to the caves. The article describes and reflects back to humanity in the change of old view and assumption. Describing the Neanderthals as peoples and their shared ancestry with us. The Neanderthals did similar belief as the human species being they buried their dead. They had faith and reason to their functions. Believed in ceremonial purpose relating how we humans also believe in faith and ceremonial purpose there is a reason. Through congruence, both centuries had knowledge from experience and practical understatement.
Throughout the documentary “Decoding Neanderthals” there was a push of research to push the human view of Neanderthals. Over the year’s research showed that we coexisted with Neanderthals and out beat their species. Many believed that Neanderthals where like the stereotypical unintelligent and wild caveman. With new technology, enhanced research, and the exposing documentary “Decoding Neanderthals” pushed the boundaries of these past ideologies. Through this we have learned how intelligent, symbolic, and closely related this species is to homo-sapiens species. This research proved that the Neanderthal may have not became extent due to in ability to create weapons but, due to inter breading with humans
If I had the ability to travel back into prehistoric times, I would like our homo-neaderthalensis ancestors. The reason for this is that they were the first to be recognized as an early human being. We are all pretty much Neanderthals and I even read that if you can send a swab of the inside of your cheek to the National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project and they will tell you how much Neanderthal DNA you have. The Neanderthals also made many weapons and were able to throw spears really well.
According to the consensus view, the Neanderthals lived 250,000 to 30,000 years BP (Before the Present), they were very primitive, looked more like gorillas than men, led a short brutish life, and died on average at the age of forty-five. According to my research, they were built more powerfully than modern Humans. Their thicker tendons and ligaments, attached to heavier bones, gave them superior strength, and the capacity of leaping high to hunt large animals. One of their back muscles, that Humans have lost, added tremendous force and precision for throwing an object such as a lance, or for handling a sword. Their voluminous rib cage gave superior stamina during any effort. Their eyesight was much sharper than that of modern Humans'
Homo neanderthalensis is the closest extinct relative of Homo sapien. They were named for the Neander valley region in Germany where some of the first Neanderthal remains where discovered. Lime miners stumbled across the remains in a cave belonging to a bear; the fossils were then given to a local teacher and amateur naturalist, Prof. Dr. Johann Carl Fuhlrott. (Tattersall) He identified them as being very old and distinctly different from any other human bones he had seen before. Fuhlorrt then brought a skullcap and partial skeleton to the Professor of Anatomy at the University of Bonn, Hermann Schaaffhausen. (Tattersall) They published their findings in 1857 that these remains belonged to a different people then modern humans.
Several different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the extinction of Neanderthals, from climate changes to intoxication from cave-associated contaminants like smoke, from cannibalism to diseases (Herrera et al., 2009). It is only certain that Neanderthals disappeared from fossil record after the arrival of modern humans, around 40,000 years in Asia, and 10,000-15,000 years in Europe (Shreeve, 1995). Fossil evidence shows the presence of modern humans in Middle East from 130,000 to 75,000 years ago, in the same areas where Neanderthals retreated between 65,000 and 47,000 years ago (Mellars, 2004).