Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that causes a red rash on the skin. It is caused by a toxin producing organism called Streptococcus pyogenes. This organism is rarely seen in well developed countries. The age group it affects is typically six to twelve year olds, however; all age groups can have the infection. The modern form of scarlet fever “...in children is now causing toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS), an acute and
What are these other serious illnesses that are caused by group A Streptococcus? What is group A Streptococcus? Group A streptococci are bacteria commonly found in the throat and on the skin. The vast majority of GAS infections are relatively mild illnesses, such as strep throat and impetigo. Occasionally, however, these bacteria can cause much more severe and even life threatening diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (occasionally described as "the flesh-eating bacteria") and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). In addition, people may carry group A streptococci in the throat or on the skin and have no symptoms of disease.
In S. pyogenes-associated necrotizing fasciitis, the bacteria first invade host fascia before spreading and causing more invasive damage. Initial GAS invasion can occur through three primary pathways: 1) preceding superficial infection; 2) direct inoculation; or 3) hematogenous seeding from a previous injury site. After colonization, GAS spread through the typically sterile fascial planes that separate muscle groups, which are only loosely held together by connective tissue. The streptococci then release several proteases and other virulence factors that cause localized tissue damage. Simultaneously, this dissemination prompts the arrival of acute inflammatory host cells; the response of polymorphouclear leukocytes (PMNs), in particular, can also contribute to the tissue damage characteristic of necrotizing fasciitis. Once the
If a streptococcal infection such as pharyngitis or scarlet fever is left untreated, there is a small (~3%) chance that within approximately 20 days, the patient will present with rheumatic fever. After the first bout of rheumatic fever, if the host acquires a second untreated S. Pyogenes infection, the chance of coming down with rheumatic fever jumps substantially to ~50%. Most often this secondary disease will strike people aged 6-15 years old, roughly 20 days after the streptococcal infection, with a 2-5% mortality rate. One of the major diagnostic symptoms of this disease is Erythema Marginatum, snake- or ring-like eruptions covering the trunk, upper arms, and legs. Other symptoms include fever, arthritis (elbows, knees, wrists, and ankles), swollen joints, pain in the abdomen, nodules
Necrotizing Fasciitis is a bacterial infection which causes the tissue under the skin to be destroyed. This flesh-eating infection is caused by more than one type of bacteria making it rare in many cases. Once the bacteria enter the body, it can quickly spread causing it to be deadly. The fascia, which is the connective tissue surrounding the blood vessels, nerves, fat, and muscles is infected making the body weak and lack support. In order to acquire this infection the skin needs to be broken such as getting a cut, scrape, or wound. With small injuries
The Black Death was a very deadly disease that killed many people throughout that time period in China and Europe. The Black Death killed a quarter of the population and left many in fear and in bedlam. People were dying left to right as if someone was in the clouds shooting arrows at them as if they had done something wrong and unacceptable. It started in 1347 and it originated in China and traveled by sea all the way to Europe. People gave up everything as a start of a new beginning in hope that the God or Gods would forgive them and send away the torture that struck upon the citizens. It has been said that it came by fleas on rats but new studies show that it has came from fleas on gerbils.
C. perfringens can growth in the death cells providing nutrients for sporulation. Because C.perfringens is anaerobe it ferment carbohydrates in the dead cells and produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This is an exotoxin bacteria and can intoxicate muscle tissue until invade the bloodstream causing dead.
When people hear the word “forensics” it evokes a mindful of graphic, vibrant images that bring about death and crime. It’s a trigger word that reminds people of gore, autopsies, DNA, death investigations, and bullet holes. This word means so much more than just those few examples of what forensics hold. Forensics is such a broad term- it is “scientific tests or techniques used in connection with the detection of a crime”, so with that given definition forensics could mean many different things. You could go from someone who works as the forensic computer technician who can hack into a sexual predator’s hard drive in the matter of seconds to a forensic anthropologist who studies bones in a legal case. All though there
A strep bacteria can cause rheumatic fever, impetigo, scarlet fever, werperal fever, streptococcal toxic syndrome, tonsillitis, and of course strep throat. Group B Streptococcus can cause infections in the bladder. In the U.S. around 12,000 newborn babies will be infected each year. Group B strep can cause blood infection, pneumonia, and meningitis in babies.
Necrotizing fasciitis Staphylococcus auerus can occur in many forms, one being methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus auerus (MRSA). This specific strand of bacterium that has evolved to become antibiotic resistant. This makes MRSA necrotizing fasciitis almost impossible to treat with antibiotics alone, and often requires extensive surgical procedures. In The New England Journal of Medicine, researchers highlighted MRSA as a root cause of numerous cases of monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis reported in Los Angeles in 2003 (7).
Rheumatic fever is a disease that can occur following an infection caused by the Group A streptococcus bacterium. If untreated, an infection such as ‘strep throat’ may lead to a delayed complication featuring widespread inflammation in other parts of the body, particularly the joints, heart, skin and brain.
The canine was positioned with its left side down with the feet facing myself. The first incision I made was a straight line from the chin towards the ventral midline of the neck to expose the mandibles and masseter muscles, skinning the neck to expose the underlying structures. I continued to skin down towards the flank of the right forelimb and cutting the muscles between the subscapular are and the rib cage in order to free the limb, while also cutting the prescapular and axillary lymph glands.
Also, contraction is very possible through the skin via abrasions both small and large. This type of infection would be contracted from exposure to other people harboring the bacteria, bacteria in the air, or bacteria on the injured person. Being infected this way can rarely result in necrotizing fasciitis. It is also very possible, albeit very rare, that Streptococcus pyogenes can be transmitted through food, most notably milk and its products. This form of infection is usually caused by improper or lack of pasteurization of the milk. The bacteria that are responsible hardly ever come from an outside source, and are usually present within the cow when infected milk is produced. However, these two other methods of transmission are far less likely than the usual human-to-human respiratory infections. (6,2,1)
Virulence Factors: The most important virulence factor of S. aureus is the specific surface proteins that allow the organism to attach to host proteins. The surface proteins of this bacterium allow it to attach to host proteins such as laminin and fibronectin, which form the extracellular matrix of epithelial and endothelial cells. S. aureus also produces a number of membrane damaging toxins that allow the organism to further invade and harm the host, of which the alpha- toxin is the most well studied and is the protein responsible for septic shock. The alpha- toxin is a protein that binds to a specific receptor in platelets and monocytes in humans, forming pores that eventually destroy the cell.