Negative Effects Of Smoking

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Smoking causes 1,300 deaths daily in the U.S., and an estimated 5.6 million pre-mature deaths is expected among American youths18 years and younger due to a smoking-related illness if smoking continues at the current rate (CDC, 2017). According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), there are currently 40 million adult smokers in the U.S. (CDC, 2017), and 763,960 of these residents are from Massachusetts (DPH, 2014).
Smoking can cause various kinds of cancer such as those of the cervix, stomach, esophagus, lungs and the bladder (Cio et al., 2014). Besides, smoking predisposes individuals to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which involves health complications in the bronchi resulting in various diseases such as
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According to West, McNeill & Raw (2000), 1-3 smokers from 100 who receive brief advice from their health care provider, make some form of attempt to quit, as this form of advice can trigger a cessation attempt. Patients tend to lose interest and revert to their bad habit. A pilot study, completed at the Mason Square Clinic in Springfield between July and August of 2017 was successful as it utilized the use of group sessions, contingency management and the use of a carbon monoxide breathalyzer, but had margin for error due to the use of large rewards instead of smaller amounts (J. Alexander, personal communication, November 1, 2017). On a national level, exposure to secondhand smoke or smoking cigarettes leads to premature death of almost 500,000 Americans yearly (CDC, 2017), and smokers die 10 years earlier than non-smokers. An estimated 40% to 70% of people with HIV smoke, a number almost triple in comparison to that of those with other chronic illnesses such as Diabetes, Cancer, Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease and Cardio-cerebrovascular disease (Nguyen, et al., 2015). In HIV-positive patients, a negative virologic and immune response (O’Cleirigh, Traeger, Mayer, Magidson & Safren, 2013), and an increase in medical complications have been linked to smoking (Humfleet, Hall, Delucchi, Dilley, 2013). Yet, despite the available data and

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