Part 1: Introduction Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by structural deterioration of bone tissue and reduced bone mineral density(BMD). Consequences include increased pain, increased risk of fracture, loss of mobility, and death (Osteoporosis Canada 2014).
Osteoporosis “Thirty-five year old Donna Duckworth is learning how to care for her newborn of five weeks, when she bends over the baby’s crib and feels something give in her back. The next day and the following week, the pain becomes unbearable in her back. She is breast-feeding and does not want to take any medication so she lives with the intense and continuing pain. Within a few weeks, she can no longer stand it so she goes to see her physician who orders blood work, does a complete physical and as a result, sends her to see an orthopedist who x-rays and does a bone density study. The diagnosis comes back as osteoporosis and it is found she has fractured three of her lumbar and four of her cervical vertebra.”
6. Which individuals are most at risk of infection by this nematode and why? Small birds and mammals because they forage for seeds. A tiny amount of the parasite needs to be ingest to begin causing problems and it can be found in raccoon feces.
Animal or zoophilic infections are usually periodic and restricted to the areas where the host animal is found. Microsporum canis, the cat and dog ringworm, is the commonest of the zoophilic infections worldwide and spread occurs directly from an infected animal and, probably, from contaminated furniture, floors and carpets in the home environment. I contrast, Anthropophilic dermatophytes are more common in the community. In some cases there is evidence to support the existence of localized epidemics of
spread to Europe when the Mongols attacked an Italian trading post. Through extensive scientific and medical research, researchers discovered that the disease is caused by Yersinia pestis. Several species of rodents host this bacterium, usually contracted from flea bites. There
The coastal and nearshore habitat of the Hawaiian monk seal is where most runoff water concentrates; thus, increasing exposure of T.gondii eggs to the Hawaiian monk seal (NOAA, 2013). The parasite is transmitted to the Hawaiian monk seal through either direct ingestion of toxoplasma eggs from the water or from consuming toxoplasma infected marine prey (NOAA, 2013). Toxoplasmosis can cause inflammation and dysfunction of the heart, liver, brain, and immune system; thus, increasing the vulnerability of the Hawaiian monk seal to other environmental threats (NOAA, 2013).
In response to these comments, it was then that the FDA added three additional pathogens to the list of qualifying pathogens: Coccidiodes species, Cryptococcus species, and Helicobacter pylori. Coccidiosis species, Cryptococcus species, and Helicobacter pylori. Coccidiosis is a disease caused by fungi from the genes of Cryptococcus that affect living organisms such as humans and animals. Living organisms usually contract this by inhaling the fungi, thus resulting in lung infection that can travel to the brain causing further harm for the organism. Two individuals were first identified with the fungus between 1894 and 1895. The Cryptococci’s can be found worldwide. The main way that disease is spread is also through inhalation with the particular fungus that happens to be associated with several species of bird, particularly old pigeon waste and bat guano.
Depending on the damage caused, most animals will recover from moderate parasite disease. However, parasites can slow growth and development- particularly of calves- and it has been suggested that burdens in adults, if left untreated, can improve fertility rates and
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become brittle and lose their durable architecture. This condition can be caused as a side effect of some drugs such as corticosteroids, hormonal changes or due to nutritional deficiencies. The pathogenesis behind osteoporosis is an imbalance between bone catabolism and anabolism; which nutrition contributes greatly to. The two main nutrients that are implicated with bone turnover are calcium and vitamin D, and a deficiency in either of them can result in impaired bone matrix deposition.
Trichinella Spiralis is a typical intracellular parasite of skeletal muscles which infects a wide range of mammals including humans. Trichinella spiralis is characterized as the best member of Trichinella genus, because of the fact that it can cause human disease, trichinellosis and apart from humans, infection by trichinella spiralis has high occurrence in domestic and sylvatic animals. In addition, it plays an important role in vivo models in laboratory for study of basic biology, immunological and pathological studies due to its high infectivity for laboratory animals.
Osteoporosis is a skeletal, chronic disease, which is characterized by diminished bone strength and deterioration of bone tissue, that results in increased fracture risk, especially in the wrist, hip, and spine (CDC,2012;NIH, 2001). In osteoporotic patients, bone mineral density (BMD) is ≥2.5 standard deviation below the mean for healthy young adults at the spine, femoral neck or
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that primarily affects herbivores. It is caused by spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. Spores are present in contaminated soils and contaminated animal products. Herbivores acquire infection while grazing and may develop septicemia. After their death, the vegetative form of the bacteria is present in
As stated previously, the accurate and factual information regarding Chronic Wasting Disease is important to further gain an understanding among the many stakeholders of the degree of risks of CWD and more so, to gain support for CWD management. The failure to keep Texas Landowners, hunters
Cryptococcosis is the most common systemic fungal infection in cats. It is caused by the Cryptococcus neormans fungus and is found in soil and bird droppings throughout the world. Young cats are affected most often with about 50 percent of cases affecting the nasal passages. This is a serious infection that, if not quickly treated, can result in meningitis and death. Another 25 percent of the cases are cutaneous cryptococcosis. This condition produces swelling over the bridge pf the nose, face or neck. Outdoor cats are more likely to be infected as they prowl. Symptoms of neurologic cyrptococcosis can include
Eimeria Spp. or coccidiosis is a parasitic disease that is seen universally, most commonly in young animals housed or confined in small areas contaminated with oocysts. Coccidiosis is usually an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or Isospora. Infection results from ingestion of infective oocysts and can affect all kinds of animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and rabbits. Clinical signs of coccidiosis are due to destruction of the intestinal epithelium and, frequently, the underlying connective tissue of the mucosa. Clinical signs include diarrhea, fever, inappetence, weight loss, emaciation, and in extreme cases, death. This may be accompanied by hemorrhage into the lumen of