Neuroscience

1187 WordsSep 27, 20145 Pages
Chapter 2- Neuroscience and biological foundations Glial Cells (three types): Make up about 90% of the brain’s total cells. They also supply nutrients and oxygen, perform clean up tasks, and insulate one neuron from another so that their neural messages are not scrambled. Oligodedreocytes: helps to create the myelin sheath. Purpose speed up communication in the brain. Insulate axons. Makes Neural transmissions. Microglia: Special immune cells in the brain. They can detect unhealthy and damaged neurons and therefore, they can help in removing those damaged cells. - detect viruses and bacteria in the brain - Chew them up and attack foreigners Astrocytes: The rising star of the brain - gained a lot more attention - they’re…show more content…
e.Epinephrine (adrenaline): helps out body to metabolize glucose. Fright or flight response, adrenaline rush, exercising to store energy, helps our body release energy. f. GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid): Control our anxiety, sleep, relax, and feel calm. Decreases level of anxiety—> alcohol, tranquilizers, depressants. Depress CNS activity— don’t have capacity to control our conscience behavior. Low levels of GABA may result in seizure, tremors, and insomnia. g. Endorphins: Opiate-like substances. heroine—numb pain—> most difficult drug to get off. Involved in “runners high” relieve the pain of the muscles. CNS: Brain and spinal chord The spinal chord is important because it coordinates signals between the brain and the rest of the body. Comprises of the meninges in the spinal chord PNS: All nerves and neuron connecting to CNS and the rest of the body. Divided between the Somatic and Automatic ANS. Somatic—control of voluntary muscles (memory). ANS: Controls involuntary movement—heart rate, sneezing, coughing— Sympathetic and Parasympathetic. Sympathetic Nervous System: Mobilizes bodily resources to respond to the stressor. Emergency response is often called fright or flight response. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Responsible for returning your body to its normal functioning by slowing down your heart rate, lowering your blood pressure, and increasing your digestive and eliminative processes. Hindbrain comprises of: Medulla
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