Nile River : The Major Source Of Water And Soils

1165 WordsSep 21, 20165 Pages
Abstract Nile River is the major source of water and soils in Egypt. Silt is the main soil component of it. The Nile is one of the international rivers; it passes through ten countries in Africa, and divided into two branches; Rosetta and Damietta at the end. Hydro-geochemical study of Rosetta branch was done. The geochemical processes which control the water quality and its suitability for drinking, fishing and irrigation purposes was evaluated. Thus the hydro-environmental status is studied. Fifteen water samples were collected for determining the physical and chemical parameters. The results show that several parameters are above the desired limits. High concentrations of total dissolved solid (TDS), Electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, ammonia (NH3), (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride (Cl-), Sulfate (SO42-) were found. While a reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO) in the drains especially Tala and El Rahawy drains were noticed. In addition, residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Sodium percent (Na %), Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and Magnesium hazard (MH) were measured. The results show that the salinity values for the selected samples minimized their utilization for irrigation. The results indicate that the main geochemical process in the study area is cation exchange and evaporation which control the main ion distribution. Keywords: Geochemical processes, Hydro-geochemical, Water quality, Nile River, Introduction 1.1. Water Resources in Egypt Nile River
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