Dictionary of organic compounds, 6th edition, Chapman and Hall, London, Volume 3(& Volume 6), 1996 Maria Lindsay and Sean P. Hickey, Organic chemistry lab 2 manual, department of Chemistry University of New Orleans
The hydrobenzoin (meso) product of the benzil was isolated through the techniques of recrystallization and vacuum filtration. Because there NaBH4 was the limiting reagent in the experiment, 0.005604moles of NaBH4 should yield 1.2008g of hydrobenzoin (meso). The mass of the isolated product was 0.613g, resulting in a 51.1% yield. There are many reasons to account for the loss of 48.9% of
Gilbert, John and Stephen F. Martin. Experiment Organic Chemistry: A Miniscale & Microscale Approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2010. 537-547. Print.
The product attained was a white, dry solid. The small amount of product lost during the second recrystallization was most likely do to impurities, which were filtered away with the methanol. Impurities that contributed to the low percent yield could be due to side reactions such as methyl o-nitrobenzoate and methyl p-nitrobenzoate. Although the percent yield attained was low, the product attained was fairly pure due to similarity in melting point and IR spectrum compared to standardly accepted values for methyl m-nitrobenzoate.
Mayo, D. W.; Pike, R. M.; Forbes, D. C. Microscale Organic Laboratory with Multistep and Multiscale Syntheses, 5th ed.; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011; pp 132-135.
8. ISBN: 0-558-05245-2 Virtual ChemLab: General Chemistry, Student Lab Manual/Workbook, V. 2.5, Third Edition, by Brian F. Woodfield and
7. Plan: Each student in a group of three will work to purify the product of the reaction with cis-stilbene, trans-stilbene, or styrene. The crude products will be purified through recrystallization. This purification process will be performed several times. When the recrystallization is complete, a vacuum filtration will be executed to filter out the crystals. An NMR spectrum will be taken of the recrystallized product.
Adrain, A. L (1997). The Most Important Thing I Know. New York, NY: MJF Books.
The original 1.0 gram of the 50/50 mixture of the benzoic acid and benzil contain 0.5 gram of benzil. Thus, from 0.5 gram of benzil, only 0.266 gram of benzil was collected. The percent recovery of benzil was calculated to be 53.2%. This low percent recovery could be due to filtration errors. Some amount of benzil remained on the filtration paper that contained the MgSO4. In order for determining the purity of the
Fifield, F. W. and Kealey, D. 1995. Principles and Practice of Analytical chemistry. (4th ed) Glasgow, Blackie Academic and professional.
After the initial mixture has refluxed, 9.11 grams of benzophenone was dissolved in 100 mL of anhydrous ether in a beaker and was then transferred into the separatory on the reflux apparatus. This solution was then added to the Grignard reagent at a drop wise rate while stirring. After the benzophenone was added, the mixture was then refluxed for 15 minutes on a heating mantle.
“Chemist Collector Bader Donates RBW Notebook” is an article written by Theodor Benfey. This article was published in Newsmagazine of the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Volume 19, Number 4 Winter 2001/2. It can be found on pages 16 through 17. Alfred Bader was an ambitious graduate student at Harvard University. He attended a lecture course that was given by Robert Burns Woodward. Woodward was a distinguished chemist, also known for his artistic skills that display both the elegance of his organic syntheses and in the way he depicted them in his lectures. Although Bader didn’t do his graduate work with a different professor, his exposure to Woodward—a distinguished chemist of that time period—led to great accomplishments. This includes establishing
The properties were first discovered in the 1980s by a Cuban biologist, Misael Bordier Chibas. Misael was studying the affects of poisons on different aliments, when he
Belk, C. M., & Maier, V. B. (2016). Biology: science for life with physiology.Links, 1, 1-6.
Although organic reactions have been conducted by man since the discovery of fire, the science of Organic chemistry did not develop until the turn of the eighteenth century, mainly in France at first, then in Germany, later on in England. By far the largest variety of materials that bombard us are made up of organic elements. The beginning of the Ninetieth century was also the dawn of chemistry, all organic substances were understood