Title: Association of “non-invasive sub-clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessment tools” with sleep duration and sleep quality. A systematic review
Sleep is essential to life, and it is estimated that humans spend one third of their lifetime sleeping 1. An estimated 50-70 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders, yet only 20% report it to their physicians. Poor sleep may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and has serious biological consequences 2. A growing body of literature suggests a relationship between sleep parameters (sleep duration and sleep quality) and morbidity & mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and all-cause mortality 3-8. A recent review summarized 23 studies and…show more content… The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the relationship between self-reported and objectively assessed sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. This systematic review may also highlight the role of noninvasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures in those with sleep disturbances
An electronic systematic literature search was performed using the EMBASE (via EMTREE) and Medline database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD via PubMed) for relevant literature up to December 2014 (Fig. 1). We used both MeSH and Emtree terms and relevant free text terms. The following search terms (synonyms and combinations) were used: “sleep duration” and “sleep quality”. These terms were combined with “cardiovascular disease risk”, “atherosclerosis”, “atherosclerosis progression”, “endothelial function”, “subclinical atherosclerosis”, “coronary artery calcium”, “carotid intima-media thickness”, “flow mediated dilation”, “pulse wave velocity”, and “arterial stiffness”.
The results obtained were manually scanned for relevant articles by two independent reviewers. References of obtained articles were used for additional articles. The search was limited to human subject studies published in the English language. Only articles from original research were included. We excluded letters and editorials as well as studies in patients with pre-existing clinical