Two factors correlating mental health and child development are abuse and neglect. All forms of abuse from physical, sexual, and emotional have a great impact on the consciousness of a child. Due to the damage abuse causes in their psychological development, children express themselves through their emotions and behavior (Mondal & Das, 2014). The physical aspect is the first thing that comes to mind when we come across the word abuse. It does not only stop at the visible scars and bruises, children can also be abused emotionally. Naturally, a child gravitates their biological mother, when the love and nurturing is absent and instead the void
From a historical perspective, child maltreatment has varied in form depending the time and place and the standing of which children hold within family and society. Child maltreatment as defined by the, includes physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, in addition to neglect (National Institution, 2011). Early childhood experiences create the basis for expression of intelligence, emotions, and personality (National Institution, 2011). When these experiences are predominantly negative, the stage is set for emotional, developmental, and behavioral problems that persist throughout life. Studies have shown that the brains of children who have experienced long-lasting abuse and neglect remain in a state of "hyper-arousal" or anticipation of forthcoming danger. This hyper-arousal may affect learning and the ability to form emotional bonds with others (National Institution, 2011). In the book Children and criminality, Flowers give a historical background of child maltreatment leading to his findings of how the treatment of children was and is based on seven distinct premises; (1) the value of children in a given time and place (2) how they fit into the structure of society; (3) religious beliefs and superstitions; (4) exploitation; (5) societal ideology; (6) economic stresses; and (7) psychological and societal induced stresses (Flowers, 1986).
Victimization comes in many different forms such as assault, child physical/sexual abuse, stalking, theft, rape, sexual harassment, and domestic/relationship violence. There are several negative outcomes that have been linked with childhood abuse and neglect such as neurobiological changes, emotional and psychiatric disorders, interpersonal issues and substance abuse problems (Min, Singer, Minnes, Kim, & Short, 2012). According to Reid and Sullivan (2009), children and adolescents are very vulnerable and are the most highly victimized individuals of the population and the kinds of victimization that they experience can come in many forms (Finkelhor et al., 2009). This victimization is known as poly-victimization (Finkelhor et al., 2009).
Child maltreatment is a staggering social issue in American society. More than 70% of the children who die as a result of child abuse or neglect are two years of age or younger. More than 80% are not yet old enough for kindergarten. (childhelp.org, 2018) Child abuse is the point at which a parent or guardian, regardless of action or neglecting to act causes damage, passing, emotional risk of serious harm to a youngster. There are numerous types of form of child maltreatment, including neglect, physical harm, sexual abuse, exploitation, and emotional abuse. Children who are abused or neglected, including those who witness domestic violen
The United States has been fighting the war against child abuse since the first case of child abuse in 1874 that included a child being beaten and chained against her will (Meadows, 2014). Many people hear the words child abuse and think of physical abuse. While, many people are correct in thinking of physical abuse, an “Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE)” study done by the CDC shows that although physical abuse is the leading form of child abuse, emotional or psychological abuse is the second leading form of child abuse (2014). Although one would think sexual abuse along with physical abuse would be the prominent form of abuse, this is not the case. One of the major reasons emotional neglect is more prominent than sexual abuse is due to the fact that emotional abuse is not being overlooked as often as it used to. In fact, it is now being seen as the gateway to physical and sexual abuse (Garbarino, Guttman, & Seeley, 1988). The amounts of consequences that come from being abused as a child are countless as well as life changing, some of these life-changing effects were identified by the CDC as drug abuse, sexual transmitted diseases, suicidal thoughts, and difficulty learning (2014).
Child maltreatment has been a serious public health problem not just in the United States but globally. Maltreatment is defined as neglect which means failure to provide for a child’s basic physical, educational, or psychological needs. Physical abuse such as causing physical harm, sexual abuse, abuse that includes fondling a child’s genitals or breasts, and psychological abuse, such as verbal put-downs and other behavior that terrorizes, threatens, rejects or isolates the child. “According to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), in 2007 approximately 794,000 children (10.6 per 1,000 children of all ages) were identified as victims of child abuse or neglect. Approximately one-half (46.1%) of all victims were non-Hispanic white, 21.7% were African American, and 20.8% were Hispanic. One-third (31.9%) were under the age of 4 years.” (Gross, 2010)
In the US alone nearly “3 million children experience some form of maltreatment” (Spinazzola, Hidgdon, Ford, Briggs, Liang, Layne, Pynoos, Stolbach, Kisiel, 2014 p. S19). The maltreatment of children is an issue that is happening around the world. Most people think about physical abuse being the most common form of maltreatment; however, emotional abuse accounts for “36%” ( Spinazzola et al 2014 p. S19) , and emotional neglect accounts for “52%”(Spinazzola et al 2014 p. S19) of identified child maltreatment cases. Most studies look at how abuse and neglect impacts children in many emotional and behavioral ways; meanwhile, nothing is changing when it comes to their recovery. Most maltreated children will
Every year, child abuse and neglect affect more than one million children nation-wide (Currie and Tekin 1). Along with this, child abuse is the source of severe injury to more than 500,000 children and the death of over 1,500 children (Currie and Tekin 1). These outrageously large numbers reveal the extent to which child abuse and neglect impact society; however, they do not acknowledge the effect abuse can have on a child’s life and the repercussions that may occur in both the individual’s childhood and adulthood. While the effects most certainly include physical pain and possibly future disabilities, child abuse and neglect can also affects the child’s psychological welfare. Psychological effects are often more difficult to recognize,
According to Karen Seccombe (2010), the highest rates of victimization exist among children from birth to one year old, and they are slightly more likely to be female. As defined in Exploring Marriages and Families, child abuse is an attack on a child that results in an injury and violates our social norms. There are four types that are most commonly considered: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological or emotional maltreatment. Each of these has been studied at length, and some have been linked to various other problems. For example, Romano (2014) suggests that not only is there a link between childhood academic achievement and mental health, but between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes as well. Maltreatment here can be defined simply as any verbal, mental, or psychological abuse which serves to destroy a child’s self-esteem (Seccombe, 2010). The research evaluates certain variables
There are many forms of abuse and neglect. One that stands out to me is child abuse. There are several forms of child abuse, some rarer than others. The reasoning behind child abuse is intriguing to me. Why and how can someone abuse a child? Mental health of the abuser plays a big role in how and why people do the things they do. A mental health issue contributing to child abuse is Munchhausen syndrome by proxy. (MSpB) Munchhausen syndrome by proxy symptoms are varied, almost always characterized by a caretaker, usually the mom, creating symptoms in someone they care for. (Gross, 2008)
Child Abuse and Neglect continue to be a serious pediatric and social threat to the nation’s children. Child maltreatment is more than bruises and broken bones. While physical abuse may be the most noticeable, other types of abuse, such as emotional and sexual abuses, leave deep, lasting scars. Child Maltreatment includes significant negative experiences with long-lasting effects. These childhood experiences cause detrimental, long lasting effects during cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development and often well into adulthood. This paper will look at the various types of child maltreatment and the causes attributed to them, as well as the long term effects of child abuse and what can be done to prevent these abuses.
In recent years, there have been numerous studies and research evidence presented that expose the negative effects that early maltreatment and adversity, as well as poor parent-child attachments can have on children. The 2012 Children’s Bureau reported that an estimated 1,640 children died from maltreatment that year. Of that number, 70% experienced neglect and 44% experienced abuse (USDHHS, 2012). This maltreatment, according to the Modified Maltreatment Classification System, includes physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect (English & Longscan Investigators, 1997). A majority of studies focus on the neurological, physiological, environmental and behavioral consequences, but few studies have examined the effect early adversity has
The experiences we have as children shapes our behaviors and they way our brains function as adults. Child abuse and neglect is a hidden epidemic that not everyone fully understands or knows about its existence. Every year three million reports are made against child abuse; more than six million children are affected annually. The United States carries one one the highest records of child abuse among industrialized countries. Abuse can be in many forms: physical, emotional, and sexual. Child abuse can cause many harmful heath issues in children. Mental heath disorders, sexual and reproductive health issues, and behavioral health (criminal behaviors) can all be a result of experiencing abuse as a child. Child abuse is more prevalent in children
However, all forms of child abuse carry emotional consequences because the child's psychological and emotional development inevitably suffers from all forms of abuse. An intervention model that would focus on emotional abuse could also focus on preventing other forms of abuse because violent behavior towards children often comes from the same underlying causes, and most risk factors for child maltreatment are associated with caregiver, family, and environmental factors (McDonald, 2007). With this in mind, a possible solution would have to include early detection, but the intervention would most likely focus on factors that cause all types of child abuse. Despite the widespread occurrences of all forms of abuse, emotional neglect or maltreatment are practically impossible to detect while they occur and impair the child's normal development and social integration. Emotional abuse includes includes verbal, mental, and psychological maltreatment of children, and it is frequently overlooked by the community and mental health professionals who do not define emotional abuse as a suitable factor for diagnostic purposes (as cited in Schneider, Baumrind, & Kimerling, 2007). In reality, emotional abuse is frequently used in many families, it occurs in several worldwide cultures, and it carries significant consequences that should not be overlooked.
Child abuse and neglect are considered a social phenomenon that plays a crucial role in American society as well as in the American criminal justice system. All types of ages, genders, ethnicities at some point or another are represented as victims or perpetrators of child abuse or neglect. Child abuse includes physical, psychological and sometimes sexual abuse to a person who is below the age of 18. Child abuse or neglect victims tend to grow up with long terms consequences such as low self-esteem, depression, and other major consequences such as engaging in criminal behavior as adults, teen pregnancy and not to mention the severity of physical child abuse consequences can end up in a death of an innocent victim. This literature