What are lung cancers? Lung cancers are the abnormal cells which grow in uncontrolled manner in one or both lungs. They do not function as normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. The abnormal cells can grow, form tumours and interfere with the normal functions of the lung (Lungcancer.org, 2015). Lung cancers can be divided into two major types, namely non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancers (SCLC). NSCLC can be further classified into three main subtypes, namely adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (Longo & Harrison, 2012). Lung cancers can be diagnosed by chest X-ray, computerised tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography-computerised tomography (PET-CT) scan, bronchoscopy and biopsy (Nhs.uk, 2015). Unfortunately, lung cancers are often diagnosed at the later stages. This is due to the unrecognisable symptoms and warning signs at the earlier stages. NSCLC are often diagnosed at stage IV which accounts for 30-40% of cases whereas 60% of SCLC is diagnosed at stage IV. Lung cancer usually originates from the cells lining the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. Carcinogens especially tobacco smoke will alter the gene expression of the normal human lung cells, resulting in cell mutation. The proto-oncogenes will be converted to mutated form, oncogenes. Mutation leads to the decreased expression of the tumour suppressor genes. This results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, cell
Lung cancer can be caused by multiple factors and many factors can work together to cause someone to have lung cancer. Besides smoking, radon, secondhand smoke, the environment and someone’s occupation can all cause lung cancer. As we already know smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer cases worldwide and over forty-three million people just in the United States smoke cigarettes. There are more than fifty chemicals in tobacco smoke that are ingested each time someone smokes. Some of these chemicals include benzene (which can be found in pesticides and gasoline), Formaldehyde (which preserve dead bodies), pesticides (which are found on lawns and gardens) and Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (Martin, 2012). When a person inhales the chemicals in cigarettes, they inhale thousands of poisons, toxic metals, and
Nicotine may significantly impact tissues lining the airway, particularly since it is present in cigarette smoke which is inhaled (3). One form of advanced cancer that involves these tissues is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (1). There are three types of NSCLC: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma, all of which involve DNA
Lung cancer is a genetic and acquired disease. Lung cancer is genetic because cancer in general is caused by changes to the genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide. All of these changes include mutations in the DNA that makes up our genes. Genetic changes that increase cancer risk can be inherited from our parents, if the changes are presents in germ cells. Which are the reproductive cells of the body, those are the eggs and the sperm. Lung cancer is also acquired because as the result of errors that occur as cells divide a person’s lifetime or exposure to certain chemicals. Some examples of these chemicals are found in tobacco smoke, radiation, UV rays from the sun that damage DNA. “In general, cancer cells have more genetic changes than normal cells. But each person’s cancer has a unique combination of genetic alterations.” Some of these changes may be the result of cancer, rather than the cause. As the cancer continues to grow, additional changes will occur. Even within the same tumor, cancer cells may have different genetic changes.
Everyone knows cancer is the second leading killer in the United States. As people, we try our best to adapt when we hear a loved one has cancer. The question, “Why?” or “How?” always seems to come across our minds when hearing the diagnosis. Learning these common causes and risk factors may reduce a person’s chances in getting cancer. The most common mainstream product sold to cause cancer is cigarettes. ”Dangerous chemicals are found in tobacco use such as nicotine, Benzene, and Menthol (wood alcohol). Radioactive materials are in the tobacco leaves used to make cigarettes and cigars. Studies have shown the connection between tobacco products and lung cancer. Did you know? Lung cancer is one of the most preventable diseases that exist.
Non-small cell is the most common form of lung cancer. In fact 9 out of 10 cases of lung cancer are non-small cell. The other main type of lung cancer is small cell lung cancer, and together, they are the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, surpassing women’s breast cancer in 1987. In 2015, 221,200 people are expected to be diagnosed with some form of lung cancer. After a patient is diagnosed, their life expectancy drastically drops, as patients die on average within one year of being diagnosed. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 85% of the fatality rate.
With more than 1.61 million cases recognized annually lung carcinoma is that the leading cause behind cancer connected loss of life among men and second main cause in the back of loss of life in women worldwide [Jemal et al., 2011]. Morphologically the lung cancer is divided into small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and adenocarcinoma (AC), with non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC) accounting for 80% of all cases. [Brambilla et al., 2001]. The medical accomplishment in two decades has provided least effect on the treatment of the most cancers, the overall five year survival rate of NSCLC is roughly 15%.
Cancer is the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of cells in a part of the body. Specifically, lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. Since these cells are abnormal, they do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, these abnormal cells could possibly form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood. In both men and women, lung cancer is the second most common cancer and is the leading cause of cancer death.
Lung cancer is the leading cancer killer of men and women in the U.S. The main cause of lung cancer is smoking. (Health Risks, n.d.) Smoking weakens our body’s immune system due to the chemicals (carcinogens) that are found in cigarettes. People don’t realize how damaging these chemicals are in their bodies or maybe they do and just don’t think it will happen to them. Smoking not only causes cancer it, also causes other health issues such as heart disease, COPD, obesity and many others. The sad thing is cigarette companies know they are slowly killing people, yet they continue to advertise and sell their products. Although, this isn’t very hard for them to do with all the help they get from actors and actresses making films with them smoking. This is why kids start smoking at such a young age, because they see actors/actresses they idol doing it.
Tobacco consumption is one of the modifiable risk factors that causes or worsens numerous diseases and conditions. Tobacco used is the leading cause for cancer and cancer death in the world. Smoking increases the incidence of cancer of the lung, esophagus, kidney, bladder, stomach, colon etc. but also that of chronic diseases in particular cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease like pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD) while weakening the body’s immune system. Furthermore, smoking is responsible for the death of 480,000 people every year in the United States of America from which many are secondhand smoking.(Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016) Among other effects,
From all the cancers the body can be diagnosed with, lung cancer is the leading cause of death among men and women in the United States. About 14% of all new cancer cases are lung cancers, and it is likely that this percentage will continue to grow. The reason for the rise of this disease is due to one’s environment and lifestyle. And if you are not willing to change, you are at the risk of being affected with lung cancer.
Lung cancer is a deadly class of disease that is specifically composed of uncontrolled cell growth in the pulmonary extremities of the body (Crosta. 2009). When left untreated, the abnormal lung tissue eventually develops into life-threatening tumors (Crosta, 2009). Lung cancer is a disease that is particularly caused by smoking, nonetheless there are cases where it is simply developed naturally. The disease can severely harm the health of an individual over the course of years. In addition, researchers have determined that lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among both men and women (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014). As of today, about 210,828 people in the United States have been diagnosed with lung cancer (CDC, 2015). In 2012, about
According to the US Department of Health and Services, More than 380,000 12-to-13-year-olds and almost four million 14-to-17-year-olds have smoked cigarettes at least once (Johnston, 2014, p.1). He also explained that the numbers of smokers between cigarettes, hookahs. E-cigarettes are increasing in the past few years between adults and teenagers (Johnston, 2014, p.3). I'm also concerned because my dad and my three brothers smoke more than 2 packs of cigarettes a day. Now let's discuss the causes of lung cancer.
Lung Cancer is partly preventable with smoking cessation and it is slowly decreasing in the developed countries because of the many campaigns against tobacco addiction developed in the last decades but this is not the case in developing countries. In addition, we are observing a growing amount of lung cancer in females. (Ferlay et al. 2008), (Le Chevalier).
Smoking tobacco is one of the most common bad habits in the worldwide. A large amount of data has been collected on the issues of tobacco and overall health globally. The relationship between tobacco use and health initially comes from professional clinical observations about lung cancer, the first disease linked to tobacco use. Many people are not able to stop their addiction of smoking due to the fact that tobacco contains a common drug called nicotine that makes smokers feel as if they need to smoke all the time in order to function normally. Nicotine is a substance that is found in tobacco. It is also found in all tobacco products such as: cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and cigars. Cigarette smoking is regarded as a major health risk factor in the development of lung cancer, which it has been proven that is the main cause of cancer deaths in men and women in the United States and the world.