Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

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Non-Small cell lung cancer is one of two major cancers that affect smokers and nonsmokers. About 85% of lung cancers are non-small cancers, and at least 80% of that comes from smoking (American Cancer Society). In the United States, lung cancer is the second cancer most frequently diagnosed in both men and women and remains the major cause of cancer-related death.(Jan A. Burger, 2012). It mostly affects group ages from little as 6 to old as 60+. The factors that lead people to get this cancer of the lungs is by tobacco smoke which the biggest risk factor (Tobacco smoke also contains a large amount of free radical oxygen that can cause oxidation of the DNA nucleobase guanine to form 8-oxoguanine resulting in G to T substitutions and gene…show more content…
Cigarette smoke is harmful and it contains over 60 known carcinogens particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines. Cytochrome P450 enzymes metabolically activate these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines, which can then bind to DNA leading to DNA adducts.(Br Med Bull (2010). These carcinogens are main reasons that a person who smokes a lot of cigarette is likely to get lung cancer, or that person may not cancer at all. Genetic studies have identified a nicotine dependence locus on chromosome 15q24-25, which includes the αα5-α3-β4 nicotinic receptor gene cluster. A polymorphism, which alters an amino acid in the αα5 nicotinic receptor subunit, also influences the risk for lung cancer, COPD and vascular disease (Br Med Bull (2010)).
Chronic inflammation predispose of lung cancer. Chronic lung inflammation predisposes to lung cancer. There is a 4–5 times greater risk for developing lung cancer among those with COPD independent of age or smoking history (Lee G 2009). Even among non-smokers, the presence of emphysema on CT scan or a history of COPD is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer (Yang P, Sun Z, Krowka MJ, 2008) Chronic persistent inflammation may also cause the usually quiescent bronchoalveolar stem cells
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