Noneconomic Measures of Development

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Noneconomic Measures of Development

- The relationship between economic and social measures of development is direct and proportional.

-Conversely, the relationship between social-economic and demographic variables is usually inverse.

I. Education

- A literate educated labor force is essential for the effective transfer of advanced technology from the developed to developing countries.

- The problem in part stems from a national poverty that denies to the educational program funds sufficient for teachers, school buildings, books, and other necessities.

II. Public Services

- The quality of public services and the creation of facilities to assure the health of the labor force are equally important evidences
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- Human Development Index (HDI)

- devised by the United Nations Development Programme for minimizing the distortions that resulted from the money bias of GNP and the unreliability and inconsistency of the national figures reported.

- combining purchasing power, life expectancy and literacy

- The arbitrary implicit weighting of the three input variables makes the derived national rankings subjective than fully objective, since the index is intended to measure the absence of scarcity.

- All attempts at measuring the developmental levels of countries and categorizing their variations in qualities of life and human welfare are recognitions both of the complexity of the economic and social structures involved and of the need to focus developmental efforts.

The Role of Women

- Many of the common measures of development and change within and between countries take no account of the sex and age structures of the societies examined, but among the prominent strands in the fabric of culture are the social structures and relationships that establish distinctions between males and females in the duties assigned and the rewards
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