Northern Humanism, Renaissance, and Late Mannerism

1960 Words 8 Pages
During the sixteenth century, Europe was undergoing changes and developing two artistic styles, as well as a religious situation. These styles were known as the Northern Renaissance and late mannerism, also encountered by Reformation, which separated religious unity. During the Reformation, hostile groups known as Protestants were formed against the church because they wanted a complete renovation of the church and Roman Catholics. Late mannerism emerged at the end of the century and had little influence on Spanish literature, but overruled Spanish painting. Late mannerism also had a dominant impact of the Counter-Reformation on arts, architecture, and music.
After Europe passed through the disastrous ‘age of darkness’, there were
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“Rabelais wrote a five-part satire titled The Histories of Gargantua and Pantagruel, in which he vigorously attacked the church’s abuses and ridiculed the clergy and theologians” (Matthews 370). However, his obscene references set him aside of northern humanism. Marguerite of Angouleme expressed views similar to those of Protestants, that were sexual tales in which gratified the social class during its time. The Dutch Scholar, Erasmus, is considered one of the most influential figures among humanists. His work promoted the philosophy of Christ and dignity of the individual. Consequently, Erasmus got into conflict with Roman Catholics and Protestants with his foolish satires. “The Northern Renaissance produced new attitudes for understanding the world, ranging from analyzing the structure and organization of the human body” (Matthews 372). The Northern Renaissance is known for its competing styles, which helped shape the knowledge of many thinkers, writers, and artists. During this period, many famous philosophers and writers such as Bodin, Versalius, Montaigne, and Shakespeare were known for their intelligence. Also, this period of cultural crisis helped emerge late Gothic style paintings and drawings.
The economic growth during the age of the Renaissance was a turning point for Europe, leading it away from the horrible conditions, which existed in the Dark Ages, into becoming a great economic region. Wealth from trade and

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