Notes On Material Science Engineering

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MSE 1111 Introduction to Material Science Engineering History of Materials Research Paper Low Hong Liang 903205859 Topic: Graphene In 1924, British Physicist John Desmond Bernal determined the structure of graphite at the Davy Faraday Laboratory at the Royal Institution in London. In his paper (Bernal, 1924) (1), Bernal wrote about how the carbon atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice with free electrons allowing graphite to conduct electricity. He also suspected that graphite can be made up of single layer plane carbon atoms. Hence, leading to graphene stacks becoming graphite. In 1946, Canadian Physicist Philip Russel Wallace was interested in finding out the properties of graphite. At that point of time, due to limited…show more content…
Graphene was also theorized by chemist Linus Pauling in 1960 when he was guessing what would the properties and behaviors of a single layer of carbon atoms be like. In his book (Pauling, 1960) (3), he explained the reason on why graphene would have strong bonds. This was largely due to the carbon atoms sp2 orbitals and the flat two dimensional shape. With advances in the scientific world, graphene was finally able to be observed through the transmission electron microscope. At first, it was a few layers of graphene, but eventually G. Ruess and F. Vogt was able to observe a single layer of graphene. In 1962, Chemist Hanns-Peter Boehm also observed graphene under an electron microscope. However, no one at that point of time knew how to extract out graphene as whenever they tried isolating or creating it; graphene always interacts with the surface and hence results in its properties being able to be measured accurately. Interestingly, despite all of this research and testing, no one actually termed the word “graphene”. It was only in 1994, after about 30 years since Boehm and his team isolated and identified graphene that he authored the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry that formally defines that these single layer carbon atoms were termed “graphene”, following the -ene suffix used for fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Hanns-Peter Boehm, 1994) (4). Attempts to grow
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