Npv Chapter 9

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CHAPTER 9

Net Present Value and Other Investment Criteria

301

project a good investment? Second, if we have more than one good project, but we can take only one of them, which one should we take? The main point of this chapter is that only the NPV criterion can always provide the correct answer to both questions. For this reason, NPV is one of the two or three most important concepts in finance, and we will refer to it many times in the chapters ahead. When we do, keep two things in mind: (1) NPV is always just the difference between the market value of an asset or project and its cost, and (2) the financial manager acts in the shareholders’ best interests by identifying and taking positive NPV projects. Finally, we noted that
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With some trial and error, you’ll see that the NPV is zero at a discount rate of 5.42 percent, so this is the crossover rate. The IRR for B is higher. However, as we’ve seen, A has the larger NPV for any discount rate less than 5.42 percent, so the NPV and IRR rankings will conflict in that range. Remember, if there’s a conflict, we will go with the higher NPV. Our decision rule is thus very simple: take A if the required return is less than 5.42 per-

CHAPTER 9

Net Present Value and Other Investment Criteria

303

9.3

cent, take B if the required return is between 5.42 percent and 38.54 percent (the IRR on B), and take neither if the required return is more than 38.54 percent. Here we need to calculate the ratio of average net income to average book value to get the AAR. Average net income is: Average net income Average book value is: Average book value $12,000/2 $6,000 ($2,000 4,000 6,000)/3 $4,000

So the average accounting return is: AAR $4,000/6,000 66.67%

This is an impressive return. Remember, however, that it isn’t really a rate of return like an interest rate or an IRR, so the size doesn’t tell us a lot. In particular, our money is probably not going to grow at a rate of 66.67 percent per year, sorry to say.

Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions
1. Payback Period and Net Present Value If a project with conventional cash flows has a payback period less than the project’s life, can you

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