All the data was fitted satisfactorily using the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 7. Where, Rs, CPE1 and R1 represent solution resistance, a constant- phase element corresponding to the double layer capacitance and the charge transfer resistance, respectively. CPE2 and R2 were added to account for the electrical elements of the outer layer. The following formula expressed the electrode impedance, Z, as follow:
Z = Rs + [Rct/ {1 +(2 π f Rct Cdl)α }] (8)
Where α is an empirical parameter (0 ≤α≤1) and f is the frequency in Hz. This formula considered the deviation from the ideal RC-behavior due to surface inhomogeneties, roughness effects, and different compositions of surface layers 40, 41. The first time constant at low frequency range was claimed to the presence of an inhomogeneous passive film 42. A constant phase element (CPE) was used instead of a pure capacitance due to these inhomogenities, which were found at the oxide/electrolyte interface and under the oxide film. CEE can be introduced in terms of impedance from the following equation:
Zw= Zo i(W)-n
Where Zo is the CPE constant, W is the angular frequency (in rad/s), i2 = -1 is the imaginary number and (n) is the CPE exponent. Based on (n), CPE can represent resistance (n = 0, Zo = R),*…show more content…*

With respect to the influence of albumin, it increased the charge transfer resistance and the outer layer resistance of titanium and copper alloy and slightly decreased the capacitance. This was mainly due to the blocking effect of the organic molecule and the adsorption effect 48. R2 value of Ti increased from 592.2 kΩ cm2 in SBF solution to 1080 kΩ cm2 in SBF + Albumin and from 168.5 kΩ cm2 to 292 kΩ cm2 for the copper alloy. On contrary was the effect of KF, where it decreased significantly the impedance resistance of both samples with respect to SBF solutions (cf. Tables 3, 4, 6 and

With respect to the influence of albumin, it increased the charge transfer resistance and the outer layer resistance of titanium and copper alloy and slightly decreased the capacitance. This was mainly due to the blocking effect of the organic molecule and the adsorption effect 48. R2 value of Ti increased from 592.2 kΩ cm2 in SBF solution to 1080 kΩ cm2 in SBF + Albumin and from 168.5 kΩ cm2 to 292 kΩ cm2 for the copper alloy. On contrary was the effect of KF, where it decreased significantly the impedance resistance of both samples with respect to SBF solutions (cf. Tables 3, 4, 6 and

Related

- Good Essays
## Analysis Of Polymeric Counter Electrode

- 1370 Words
- 6 Pages

In our study, a nanocrystalline PEDOT: PSS polymeric counter electrode was used instead of the Pt counter electrode to reduce the cost of the DSSC. We present a detailed study of the photovoltaic response as current-voltage (I-V) and C-V characterization of the DSSC based on PEDOT: PSS. The conduction mechanism and the negative capacitance of the studied cell are analyzed in

- 1370 Words
- 6 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 1 Lab Report Part 1

- 1902 Words
- 8 Pages

In Part 1 of the lab, a solar cell was created and tested for its capability to conduct electricity. After researching the processes that contribute to the conductive property, it was found that the oxidized substance is the dye, as it donates an excited electron to the titanium oxide. Consequently, titanium oxide is reduced before it donates an electron to the cathode. The electrolyte solution was found to replenish the dye with electrons so it could continue to act as a reducing agent.

- 1902 Words
- 8 Pages

Good Essays - Decent Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 3 Lab Report

- 457 Words
- 2 Pages

In this lab we will be studying electric field plotting through the use of various apparatus. The equipment we will be using includes a digital voltmeter, voltage probes, carbonized acetate sheets, battery, and other tools of measurement. The goal of the lab is for us is to be able to plot lines for charge distributions and to create electric field lines by providing an electric current through carbonized sheets. Once we have completed constructing the electric field lines for the plate charge distribution, we will continue to calculate for the electric field (E = Vx) and begin to plot for the dipole charge distribution. When we have collected all the data needed, we then will finish calculating for all the remaining variables and complete the rest of the lab report.

- 457 Words
- 2 Pages

Decent Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 6 Lab Report

- 195 Words
- 1 Pages

For each point, you would add 7 to the x coordinate and then take away 1 from the y-coordinate.

- 195 Words
- 1 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Decent Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 4 Lab Report

- 1238 Words
- 5 Pages

Voc (Open circuit voltage), Is the maximum possible voltage in the solar cell when no current is passing through. Isc (short circuit current), is the current when voltage is zero. This short circuit current is found when the impedance is low, it is the maximum value for current that can be found when the voltage remains zero. Vmp and Imp is the voltage and current that are found at their respected maximum power point. Maximum power is the power value that can be found to be at its maximum, usually found between the values of Vmp and Imp. Power out is the power produced by the solar cell as a result of its voltage and current. The power out is determined by calculation, its value is determined using the of maximum voltage and current (Voc and Isc), this along with the formula P = IV (Power (P) = current (I) x voltage (V).

- 1238 Words
- 5 Pages

Decent Essays - Decent Essays
## Nt1210 Lab 8

- 444 Words
- 2 Pages

In Lab 8, the time constant of resistance-capacitance was measured in order to determine the charge of a capacitor. This experiment was conducted by setting building a circuit that connects the voltmeter across the resistor. The voltmeter was then connected across the capacitor. The above procedure was conducted several times using different voltages. Afterwards, the results were calculated and tabulated. The data obtained from the lab were the theoretical Tau for 5V, 4V and 3V. In this experiment, the calculated voltage was also determined. The theoretical and the calculated values were then compared and evaluated by determining their percentage errors. For example, in the 5V, the theoretical value was 1.23V; calculated value was 1.434 with a percentage error of 16.6 %( for voltmeter across capacitor).

- 444 Words
- 2 Pages

Decent Essays - Decent Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 1 Lab Study

- 778 Words
- 4 Pages

Usage of mobile phone to connect to social media is growing all over the world. Nowadays smartphones come with numerous health-consciousness apps, too. This study is to find out users’ preference between networking and health while choosing mobile phone.

- 778 Words
- 4 Pages

Decent Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 6 Lab Report

- 830 Words
- 4 Pages

In order to study the tendencies of the primary and secondary coils as they transfer energy through inductive coupling, a system that can aptly demonstrate the process is needed.

- 830 Words
- 4 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 1 Lab Report

- 256 Words
- 2 Pages

$\boldsymbol{P_{DC,max}}$ & $\frac{V_{DD}^{2}}{R_{opt}}$ & $\frac{2V_{DD}^{2}}{\pi R_{opt}}$& $\frac{V_{DD}.I_{rf}}{\pi}.[sin\theta - \theta cos\theta]$ & $\frac{V_{DD}.I_{rf}}{\pi}.[sin\theta - \theta cos\theta]$ \\ \hline

- 256 Words
- 2 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Nt1330 Unit 1 Lab Report

- 281 Words
- 2 Pages

We concentrate on typical pedestrian speeds of 3 Km/h for users' mobility concern. In order to describe the mobility of the mobile devices, we need to define the contact time between users $k_i$ $\&$ $k_j$. It is the time taken by two mobile nodes to meet again from the last time ($t_0$) within the range of each other and denoted by $\textit{ICT}_{i,j}$, when they were going out of the range from each other, i.e., $ICT_{i,j} = \mathop {\min } \limits_t \left\{ {\left( {t - {t_0}} \right):\left\| {{L_i}\left( t \right) - {L_j}\left( t \right)} \right\| \le R_{i,j},t > {t_0}}, L > 0 \right\}$, where $L_i(t)$ and $L_j(t)$ are the locations of the users $k_i$ and $k_j$ at time $t$, respectively, $R_{i,j}$ describes the range of transmission between $k_i$ $\&$ $k_j$, and $\left\| \bullet \right\|$ is the distance measured between the corresponding nodes. $\textit{ICT}_{i,j}$ is a time duration, which is random variable and is assumed to be independent of time.

- 281 Words
- 2 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Decent Essays
## Nt1330 Unit 1 Lab Report

- 476 Words
- 2 Pages

In this section we first briefly explain the properties of a first-order Delta Sigma modulated bit-stream. Based on these properties, we propose the P-N pair method to process the Delta Sigma modulated bit-streams.

- 476 Words
- 2 Pages

Decent Essays - Decent Essays
## Nt1310 Unit 4 Lab Report

- 1127 Words
- 5 Pages

For the first part of the lab, our goal was to calculate the time constant, , of an RC circuit. We made an RC series circuit and connected it to the Rigol wave generator to produce a square waveform for current. Then, we collected data of the voltage across the capacitor at different points in time using a myDAQ and the 4BL application. In order to find the time constant, we linearized the voltage we measured across the capacitor and then performed a linear regression on the data. The equation for the voltage across the capacitor as a function of time is:

- 1127 Words
- 5 Pages

Decent Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Nt1210 Lab Report

- 659 Words
- 3 Pages

The deceleration of vehicle speed is demonstrated successfully with the embedded system. Along with this, android based notification system consisting of image and voice output worked efficiently during the testing of embedded system. This work in progress opens opportunities for additional analysis and implementations. The measuring characteristics of sensors are for low speed conditions. When applied in higher speed situations, high-end and enhanced senors with higher range can be implemented. The notification app developed is only for android platform, in future the application can be ported to other

- 659 Words
- 3 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Decent Essays
## Myelin Sheath Essay

- 632 Words
- 3 Pages

the membrane capacitance by increasing the distance separating the charges on the inner and outer

- 632 Words
- 3 Pages

Decent Essays - Decent Essays
## Syscal Kid Resistivity Survey

- 386 Words
- 2 Pages

We observed that all the Layer 2’s had different resistivity (see Table 1). So, we did resistivity divided by thickness and it gave us electrical resistance. It had higher electrical resistance and it can be said that insulators had very high

- 386 Words
- 2 Pages

Decent Essays