Nuclear Issue in the North Korea from the Eyes of Neorealism and Neoliberalism
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Introduction Nuclear issue in the North Korea has been a problem widely discussed around the world in recent years, while the whole progress from the start of the nuclear crisis (The withdrawal of the North Korea from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 2003) to the cooperation (Six Party Talks) and its failure is quite dramatic and worth exploring (Fang, 2009). This paper attempted to use two perspectives including neorealism and neoliberalism to look at the issue, and examine their explanatory power. Accordingly, this paper recognized the importance of the two perspectives in explaining the issue. On one hand, neorealism showed the restraints and balancing behaviors of the states during the process of negotiation, implying the…show more content… Firstly, anarchy leads to International cooperation. Under anarchical status, states feeling unsafe due to no supreme authority. Thus, they tend to set up regime regulating states’ behavior to prevent defection. In this case, states are willing, though not able to cooperate with others. Regarding the unit of analysis, neoliberalism believed states are important, but other actors such as IOs, NGOs, non-state actors are also worth discussing since many issues under globalization cannot be merely solved by the states and military power.
To explore more about the mindset of neoliberalism, Robert Keohane (2000) suggested the idea of complex interdependence. To begin with, non-state actors can participate in international politics directly, while transnational world breaks down the assumption of state as the only actor, and increases the importance of non-state actors like NGOs and TNCs. Besides, international issues are complicated, breaking down the level of politics. In other words, there is no absolute difference or hierarchy between high politics like military security and low politics like public affairs and economy. Thirdly, military power is important for balancing, but it is not the only method to solve the problems. Military power, for example, cannot solve economic problems. While interdependence between states becomes more and more prominent under the increasingly globalizing world, the costs of using force to resolve disputes therefore become much