Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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1) THEORY OF NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is an analytical tools that use in quality control to analyze the microscopic physical and chemical structures of molecules. Many nuclei may be studied by NMR technique, but hydrogen and carbon are most available. NMR gives information about the number of magnetically distinct atoms of the type of nuclei being studied. When an electromagnetic radiation applied with specific frequency, and atomic nuclei are immersed in an external magnetic field, the physical phenomenon of resonance transition between magnetic energy levels occur. NMR spectroscopy use electromagnetic radiation of radio wave to probe local electronic interaction of a nucleus. The principle of NMR is many atomic nuclei has the properties that we called as spin and it is also electrically charged. The energy transfer is possible between the base energy to a higher energy level when an external magnetic field is applied to them. The energy transfer will take place when the wavelength uses is correspond to the radio frequencies. The energy will emitted at the same frequency when the spin return to its base level. Many ways can be used to measured the signal that matches this transfer in order to yield an NMR spectrum for nucleus concerned. Charges particle will generate its own magnetic field, hence, when the magnetic field is applied, the spin state is not of equivalent energy. A hydrogen nucleus may have a clockwise or counterclockwise spin, and the
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