Nuclearization in South Asia

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Introduction South Asia is a volatile region. In particular, India and Pakistan have, since the end of the Cold War, been widely regarded as the two countries most likely to become involved in a nuclear war. The cultural, religious, and ideological tensions that underlie the state-tostate antagonism are very deep-seated. The long and contested border, frequent armed conflict and mutual distrust result in an inherently unstable situation between the two nuclear armed rivals. This study will summarize the nuclear history of India and Pakistan, illustrate the dangers of instability, and examine potential U.S. actions to enhance stability in this contentious region of significant security interest. Historical Background For a thousand…show more content…
After a one-year-long lull sparked by the rout of the temple militants, a fresh surge of terrorist violence broke out with the assassination of moderate Sikh leader Sant Harchand Singh Longowal shortly after he signed a so-called "peace accord" with Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in July 1985. Gandhi's mother and predecessor, Indira Gandhi, earlier fell victim to two Sikh assassins from her own security guard in October 1984. However, since late 1985, the intensity and frequency of terrorist attacks have risen sharply, with no end in sight to the ever-growing spiral of violence. The extremists have extended their terror campaign to many areas outside Punjab, forcing authorities to constantly review and beef up security in a prime terrorist target - New Delhi. The extremists, armed with powerful, sophisticated guns, have often targeted government and police officers and Hindu and moderate Sikh politicians; but, frequently, they have engaged in the random mass killing of ordinary Hindu civilians. This year has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of attacks and fatalities. India has been troubled by sectarian violence for decades, reflecting a constant conflict between its federal system and ethnic and regional aspirations. Ethnic unrest and rebel violence have been major Indian security concerns since the Chinese-aided Naga
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