Nucleophilic Substitution: Synthesis of N-Butyl Bromide and T-Pentyl Chloride

1608 WordsMar 9, 20137 Pages
Nucleophilic Substitution | Synthesis of n-Butyl Bromide and t-Pentyl Chloride | | Jessica | [Pick the date] | Abstract The synthesis of the alkyl halide n-Butyl Bromide from alcohol is the foundation for the experiment. During the isolation of the n-butyl bromide, the crude product is washed with sulfuric acid, water, and sodium bicarbonate to remove any remaining acid or n-butyl alcohol. The primary alkyl halide halide n-butyl bromide is prepared by allowing n-butyl alcohol to react with sodium bromide and sulfuric acid. The sodium bromide reacts with sulfuric acid to produce hydrobromic acid . Excess sulfuric acid acts to shift the equilibrium and speed up the reaction by producing a higher concentration of hydrobromic acid. The…show more content…
14 mL of 9 M H2SO4 was added to the separatory funnel and the mixture was shaken. The layers were given a small amount of time to separate. The remaining n-butyl alcohol was extracted by the H2SO4 solution therefore, there was only one organic top layer. The lower aqueous layer was drained and discarded. 14 mL of H2O was added to the separatory funnel. A stopper was placed on the separatory funnel and it was shaken while being vented occasionally. The layers separated and the lower layer which contained the n-butyl bromide was drained into a smaller beaker. The aqueous layer was then discarded after ensuring that the correct layer had been saved by completing the "water drop test" (adding a drop of water to the drained liquid and if the water dissolves, it confirms that it is an aqueous layer). The alkyl halide was then returned to the separatory funnel. 14 mL of saturated aqeous sodium bicarbonate was added a little at a time while the separatory funnel was being swirled. A stopper was placed on the funnel and it was shaken for 1 minute while being vented frequently to relieve any pressure that was being produced. The lower alkyl halide layer was drained into a dry Erlenmeyer flask and 1.0 g of anhydrous calcium chloride was added to dry the solution. A stopper was placed on the Erlenmeyer flask and the contents were swirled until the liquid was clear. For the distillation

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