Nursing Education: Scholarship of Knowing and Carper's Ways of Knowing

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Scholarship of Knowing Carper (1979) proposed 4 different ways in which knowledge related to nursing and health care can be gained: Empirical - via empirical knowledge from science or experience (or other sources that can be verified). Today, that would be called evidence-based nursing. Personal knowledge and experience derived from personal experience and empathy with the other including from 'putting oneself in the other's shoes'. Feedback also helps Ethical knowledge and skills adapted from ethical experience and form a framework of morals that dictates one's actions and perspective Aesthetic the holistic integrated experience of the situation, fusing all different components in one whole. This also includes awareness of the patient and his circumstance as individual and tailoring care to the patient's circumstance. The nursing phenomena are a practice that constitutes a skillset, clump of knowledge, and way of perception that involves each of these four different factors. Only when each of the four is represented can one achieve efficient/ skilled nursing practice. It seems to me that what should be known about the nursing phenomena is that it is not exclusively made up of one characteristic in exclusion to the other. For instance, proponents of evidence-based nursing may put the evidence eon empirical research when, actually, nursing also (ontologically) involves prior experience, deduction, and empathy. One or other of the factors by itself is insufficient. In

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