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Effective cancer screening methods are used to detect or identify the presence of a specific cancer before the individual displays any symptoms of cancer. Early detection of a cancer through screening can save the life of a person who may have died without screening detection. Early detection of cancer can also provide a less costly and more effective treatment than if the cancer progresses requiring more advanced or drastic treatment. Screenings tests for the more common cancers such as breast, colon, prostate or cervical can be non-invasive or only slightly invasive. The majority of screening procedures are non-invasive which is more cost effective, patient convenient, and does not require any patient aftercare. Screening tests usually…show more content…
One future cancer screening test for prostate cancer is called EPCA -2 testing. “EPCA (early prostate cancer antigen) is a protein that is present in the blood in higher amounts in men who have prostate cancer than in men without cancer” (, n.d.). A 2007 article, according to, published in the journal Urology provided evidence that EPCA-2 testing was more cancer specific than PSA. If this is true, the test “could reduce unnecessary biopsies and the over diagnosis and over treatment of prostate cancer” (, n.d.). As of 2009 EPCA-2 research is continuing (, n.d.). The PCA3 assay prostate cancer test is being conducted in Europe. This test detects the amount of a gene called PCA3 in urine. Research show that this gene could be an indicator for prostate cancer as it is “highly evident in most men who have prostate cancer” (, n.d.). In preliminary data according to, the PCA3 test has shown to be more specific in detecting prostate cancer than the PSA test. PCA3 assay is still being tested in the United States and as of May 2010 the FDA has not granted marketing approval (, n.d.). Future cancer screening includes a blood test currently being studied in several facilities, including the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, which can identify among a billion healthy cells one single cancer cell. “The blood test uses a microchip that looks like a lab slide covered in

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