For centuries the development of nursing knowledge has been influenced by numerous theorists and their respective theories. These theories have influenced, and continue to influence, nursing education, practice and research. (Johnson & Webber, 2005)
Nursing theories have been a fundamental tool used to explain, guide and improve the practice of nursing. Theorists have contributed enormously to the growth of nursing as a profession. The four grand theorists I chose are Virginia Henderson, Peplau, Myra Levine and Jean Watson. These theorists have contributed tremendously in the field of nursing through their theories, and research. One thing the theorists have in common is that they are patient centered. They are all concerned on ways we can improve our responsibility to the patients, their families and the environment. They have different ideas but they are all aiming towards achieving the same goal, which is patient satisfaction and safety. Their differences are in their areas of
Betty Neuman is a renowned nursing theorist who developed the Neuman System Model. This model emphasizes stress and the impact it can have on patients and nursing care. Key concepts of this theory include preventions, stressors, and lines of defense. Neuman also addresses the metaparadigms of nursing, health, human being, and environment in relation to her model. The Neuman System Model is recognized by nurses across the globe, and a Neuman System Practice Center has been established to help develop her theory (Gigliotti, 2012, p. 298). This theory can be utilized in any nursing care and is inspiration for other nursing theorists.
Everyone’s values and beliefs about the profession of nursing are all different. The four concepts of nursing are interrelated and all mean something different to every person, too. Throughout this paper, I will be reflecting on my values and beliefs about nursing through the four concepts while comparing them to a nursing theorist with views that are most similar to my own.
A1. The nursing profession has evolved significantly over the decades. One of the factors that have greatly influenced these changes has been the involvement of nurses in the development of theories and data base needed to support the advancement of our profession. In the last half of the twentieth century, nurse researchers (1950s) and nurse theorists (1960s and 1970s) greatly contributed to the expanding body of nursing knowledge with their studies of nursing practice and the development of nursing models and theories (American Nurses Association, 2010, p. 16). Like in any other research activity, a special set of
The most applicable borrowed theory would be Richard Lazarus’ Stress, Coping, Adaptation Theory. “Lazarus’ theory deals with how a person copes with stressful situations” (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p. 288). This theory is categorized under the stress theories. “The stress theories provide nursing with a framework to
Throughout nursing, there are many theories that nurses may come across and use. Calista Roy’s and Betty Neuman are two theorists that use two different types of models to encompasses the health, person, and the environment. Callista Roy uses a theory that promotes adaptation to the stimuli a person may encounter. Betty Neuman uses a theory that promotes equilibrium in a time where a person will encounter stress. These theories allow the nurse to bring a knowledge to learn more about the person and the factors that influence their health. Although with any theory there are different approaches in how the nursing plan is done, but with the patient in mind, it makes the difference in care that is given and allows for better outcomes for the patient.
Nursing theories serve as thinking guides for nurses to follow in order to reach optimal outcomes for patients. Theories are applied in conjunction with experience one has gained and critical thinking in everyday nursing practice, research, and education. The Neuman Systems Model, which was created by Betty Neuman, is one example of a theory that has been in practice for decades and continues to be modified to reflect new research. When applying the NSM, the nurse focuses on identifying and preventing stressors which are factors that lead to fluctuations in the body that affect daily living.
Research in the professional practice of nursing was built upon a wide variety of theories that were presented by many well-known nursing theorists. Nursing theories that may be recognized today include Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory, Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory, Madeleine Leininger’s Cultural Care Theory, and Hildegard Peplau’s Interpersonal Process Theory. These individuals and their respective theories
Fawcett, J, (1984) Analysis and evaluation of conceptual models of nursing, F. A Davis Company, Philadelphia.
The impact of nursing theories continues to provide a framework for guidance for patient centered care. Nurses continue to use these theories to provide beneficial knowledge in advancing their profession. Kearney-Nunnery (2012) describes the function of the conceptual model as a reference point and has been used to supply information to nursing scholars. One of these scholars that uses this model is Betty Neuman with the development of Neuman’s Systems Model. Neuman’s Systems Model refers to the individual, family, group and community as the client system and how they react when confronted with stress (Kearney-Nunnery, 2012). The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding into to Neuman’s Systems Model, how it can improve patient care, and how it is used in nursing practices.
Theory is a cluster of concept or ideas that propose a view concerning a phenomenon to guide nursing practice (Chitty, 2005). The four concepts basic to nursing that are incorporated in this paper are nursing, person, health, and environment (Cherry & Jacob, 2005). The goal of this paper is to describe the core concept of nursing shared amongst Dorothea Orem and Virginia Henderson’s theories. The comparison and analysis of concept definitions between these two theories will also examined. Finally Henderson’s theory of concept statement, metaparadigm and her philosophy will be explored.
Historically, the nursing discipline has borrowed its basis for knowledge and practice from other disciplines (Weaver & Olson, 2006). Today, inquiry specific to nursing is continually changing and growing, as nurses are increasingly interested in developing their own unique body of knowledge. This interest results partially from the emergence of nursing paradigms in recent years. According to Weaver & Olson (2006), paradigms are practices and beliefs that manage our knowledge by proving a framework with which to utilize within our profession, and to guide nursing research. A paradigm shapes our quest for epistemological awareness (Weaver & Olson, 2006). Examples of paradigms common within nursing are empirical, interpretive, and critical paradigms. While each paradigm is unique with sometimes competing focuses, each contributes greatly to nursing knowledge, practice, and research.
Like any scientific discipline, the nursing profession has evolved over time. Nurses, once regarded as housemaids and lower class citizens, now hold positions of authority and stature in our modern society. These changes in the profession are attributed to the many nurse theorists who devoted their lives to the improvement of patient care. Through their theoretical advancements, the public perception of nursing has gone from dismissive to reverential. Today, our culture considers the nursing profession to be one of the most rewarding and respected career paths an individual can pursue. Through a review of one such patient theorist, Dorothea Orem, one can witness this change in the perception of the nursing profession. As a first semester student in a professional nursing course of study, Orem has already influenced my personal nursing philosophy.