Abstract In the early 1900’s autism was a completely misunderstood concept and any child who was living with it was assumed to be living with “childhood schizophrenia” and developed much slower than children without autism. A four year study of Donald Triplett gave Dr. Kannar a better understanding of what autism was and what it caused certain people to do. The main question was, does it affect the child’s development? Living with autism can affect a child’s development due to the fact that they don’t have a long attention span, can cause them to have a repetitive behavior, along with trouble in social situations whether it be verbal or non verbal.
The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a multitude of risk factors such as: genes, environmental chemical exposure, maternal factors, drug interactions, including potentially unidentified variables. These factors may act independently and/or through complex interactions to produce autism (Dietert et al., 2011). There is a growing concern with ADS due to the increased prevalence. Autism is a lifelong chronic disorder that appears to be connected to a host of comorbidities. This fact can be used to make the case that the public health strategy has not been effective in reducing this epidemic (Dietert et al., 2011). Currently there is no one environmental factor that has been identified that can account for ASD epidemic, and there appears to be more risk factors regularly identified.
The Etiology of Autism Autism is a syndrome that is characterized by the impairment of social interaction skills, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a decreased interest in participating in a variety of activities. In 1943, Kanner, the man who is attributed with the identification of this disease, hypothesized that autism might be a biological disorder as opposed to a psychological one. Numerous studies have been conducted supporting Kanner’s hypothesis. These studies have ranged from examining the effects of rubella to investigating certain purine metabolic disorders as possible etiological agents. Recently, the areas of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and genetics have played a crucial role in developing a clearer picture into
Focusing on the role of environmental factors in the development of autism after birth is a popular study amongst the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) community. It is known that genetics strongly influence the risk for developing ASD, but genetics are not responsible alone. The increasing cases of autism have generated great interest in the potential involvement of toxins in our environment and how that impacts children prone to autism spectrum disorder. For example, exposure to the chemicals thalidomide and valproic acid prior to birth has been linked to increased risk of autism.
Animal studies indicate that HFCS contributes to obesity, increased body fat, and higher triglyceride levels.A peer-reviewed study (to read the study, see In the News section) published in Clinical Epigenetics in 2012 set out to find out why the autism rates were so different for the US and Italy. After comparing a
When the word autism is stated what is the first picture that comes to mind? Is it a child throwing themselves on the ground and having an uncontrollable fit because the situation has changed from the standard routine all of a sudden? Or a child that is rocking back and forth constantly, or playing with one or two toys for a very long time without getting bored. “Currently one out of 88 children is diagnosed with having an autism spectrum disorder also known as ASD”. Smith R, Hannah S, Sengmuller E (2014 p9) Is there a way to help a child on the autism spectrum without the need for them to be on medication that has its own side effects on how the child behaves? Can a change in the diet help to control some of the side effects of being on the autism spectrum? To answer this question, we need to look at several things 1. How can a specialized diet help a child on the autism spectrum? 2. What are the common diets for autism and what is the difference between these diets. 3. What is the gluten free casein free diet all about and how do you implement it for a child with autism? 4. What evidence is there in support of specialized diets for autism from the medical profession and the parents point of view? 5. How does being on a special diet compared to the national guidelines set by this date for childcare facilities?
Influences other than the mutation in gene expression are that of environmental factors. These have an effect on the overall risk of ASD; however, they are not a direct causative factor (AutismSpeaks; 2014). In a study by Lyall et al 2014, into the maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for ASD, published in the international journal of epidemiology; an association was found between a higher intake of certain nutrients and supplements; such as periconceptional folic acid; and reduced ASD risk. The study also recorded a significant increase of ASD risk
Autism Spectrum disorder is described as a disorder that will disable people for communication and social interaction. They will have repetitive behaviors and also will have difficultly learning, reacting to things or paying attention. If there is an early intervention of this disorder treatment can be manageable. Scientist believe that genetic is the major cause of autism and there is a high chance of children to get autism if their sibling is already suffering from autism.
For years there has been many speculations conveying that some vaccines, particularly Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) causes signs of autism. Many compelling concerns have been formulated from parents of children who received vaccines and associated noticeable changes in their children with early signs of autism. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the behaviour and cognition of children (Quinn, 2014). Autism impairs communication, interest and repetitive patterns of behaviour in a child’s socialization aspect of life (Quinn, 2014). Evidently, autism has shown a prevalent increase amongst children in question with environmental causes (Doja & Roberts, 2006). Hypotheses speculate the MMR vaccine, gastrointestinal infections, Thimerosal, mercury and exposure to the live virus all correlate to early signs of autism after given the vaccine. However, vaccinations are a preventive measure against severe viruses as related to SC/BIOL2900 course content. It is a harmless agent that triggers the immunity and stimulates the body’s defence mechanism against harmful viruses (Taylor, et al., 1999). This essay will present different perspectives of vaccinations and autism following the concluded reasons I believe that vaccinations do not cause autism and illustrate better implications that can be provided to parents with concerns of this non-warranted causation.
There are many environmental factors that can contribute to Autism during the prenatal development. Although many can be avoided, some factors are non-avoidable. Assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral neurosciences at McMaster University, Stelios Georgiades (n.d.) states that “Because autism runs in families, researchers saw autism as almost entirely genetic. The old thinking was that heritability accounted for up to 90 percent of all cases. A comprehensive study of twins with autism showed that environmental factors also play an important role in driving autism recurrence in families. By environment, researchers mean anything non-genetic. This study highlighted the reality that even though autism runs in families, we can’t assume that it’s entirely inherited”.
The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, commonly abbreviated as ASDs, is gradually increasing. Today, about one in sixty-eight children have been diagnosed with one of these four disorders, which is a huge increase from one in one hundred fifty, as seen in 2000 (“Data & Statistics” 1). ASDs often coincide with other developmental, psychiatric, neurological, chromosomal, and genetic diagnosis, such as an intellectual disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, Down syndrome, or cystic fibrosis (“Data & Statistics” 1). The four different types of ASDs are autistic disorder, also known as classical autism, Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS),
It has been noted that over the last fifteen years there seems to have been an explosion of children being diagnosed with autism. If someone wants to, they can Google the word autism and they would be amazed at how many websites would come up showing proof that there has
Individuals with Autism will see, hear & feel (both emotionally & sensory) the world in a different way to others. If an individual is ‘Autistic’, then they are ‘Autistic’ for the rest of their life; & quite often individuals who have Autism feel like it can hold them back in life, mainly because of other people’s views & opinions as a result of lack of understanding & knowledge in the wider population.
What causes Autism? An overview of biological and environmental factors associated with Autism (ASD) Myia Hewison University of Sunderland PSY246 9th November 2014 Word count 1242 What causes Autism? An overview of biological and environmental factors associated with Autism (ASD) Autism, otherwise known as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) has developed significantly over the past few years. There has been much research carried out since its discovery over sixty years ago (Wolff, Narayan & Moyes, 1988), it is now described as a complex syndrome affecting the central nervous system and a developmental disorder that stems from a neurological disorder affecting normal brain function (Volkmar, 2007). This essay will examine both the biological and environmental factors believed to cause ASD, while considering some of the major theories surrounding the condition.
Autism Spectrum Disorder In the early nineteen hundreds the word autism was being referred as a wide range of neuropsychological conditions. About one hundred years the word autism has been being used. It dame from a Greek word autos meaning self. People describes the term as conditions in a person that