Nutrition Transition

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Drewnowski

Nutrition Volume 16, Numbers 7/8, 2000
24. Ferro-Luzzi A, Sette S. The Mediterranean diet: an attempt to define its present and past composition. Eur J Clin Nutr 1989;43:1329 25. Galeno C. La dieta dimagrante. Palermo, Italy: Flaccovio, 1989 26. de Baldach U. Theatrum sanitatis. Liber magistri. Codice Casanatense 4182. Parma, Italy: FM Ricci, 1970 27. Curionem I. Medicina salernitana: id est conservandae bonae valetudines praecepta. Frankfurt, Germany: Kempffer M, 1628 28. Cornaro L. L’arte di vivere a lungo. Discorsi sulla vita sobria. Venice, Italy: Brogiollo, 1620

18. Braudel F. Civilisation materielle, economie et capitalisme (XV–XVIII siecle). Les structures du quotidien. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1979:135
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However, within a given country, it is still the richest people who consume the diet highest in fat.1 The sharply reduced cost of vegetable oils has been the main reason for increased fat consumption worldwide.1 Technologic advances in high-yield oil seeds and in the refining of high-quality vegetable oils have greatly reduced the cost of baking and frying fats, margarine and other table spreads, and salad and cooking oils. The production and export of vegetable oils, not only in the United States but also in Europe, South East Asia (palm oils), and South America (soybean oils) are promoted through direct subsidies, credit guarantees, food aid, and market-development programs. By the 1990s, soybean oil represented 70% of the production and consumption of edible oils and fats in the United States and now accounts for one-third of vegetable-oil consumption worldwide.1,2 At this time, at US retail prices, vegetable oil delivers approximately 5000 calories per dollar spent. Wealth used to be associated with increased sugar consumption.2 However, sugar has become plentiful and cheap. World sugar consumption in 1999 and 2000 is forecast at a record 130.1 million tons, almost 4% above the previous year’s level. Growth trends in sugar consumption were interrupted in the mid-1990s as financial
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