The esophagus receives food from the mouth after swallowing and then delivers it to the stomach. The stomach holds food which it is being mixed with enzymes which continue the process of breaking down the food into a useable form. When the contents of the stomach are processed they are released into the small intestine. In the small intestine food is broken down by enzymes released from the pancreas and bile from the liver, the food is moved through and mixed with digestive secretions. The small intestine is made up of three segments the duodenum, jejunum and the ileum, the jejunum and the ileum are mainly responsible from the absorption of nutrients in to the bloodstream. These contents start out semi-solid and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes and mucous change its consistency, one the nutrients have been absorbed it then moves onto the large intestine. The large intestine connects to the rectum and is specialised in processing water so that emptying the bowels is easy.
The digestion of the stomach wall is disallowed by its mucus lining. The food in the stomach takes about three to four hours in the stomach before the semi liquid chyme is passed through the pyloric sphincter bit by bit into the small intestines.
Instead the pancreatic juice, which is the most important digestive juice, contains mainly water and enzymes such as: Amylase (breaks down carbohydrates/starch into glucose), Protease (breaks down proteins into amino acids) and Lipase which breaks down lipids (with the aid of bile) into triglycerides. It also contains sodium bicarbonate able to neutralize the hydrochloric acid present in the chyme. Through the lining of the small intestine I can also see numerous “brush border" enzymes which are further breaking down products of digestion into absorbable particles; these enzymes constitute the intestinal juice and particularly digest polysaccharides transforming them in monosaccharaides (Maltase, Sucrase and Lactase), (Patton & Thibodeau, 2008). The chyme now is entering in the jejunum (the second portion of the small intestine) where digestion continues and absorption begins. I notice that the jejunum contains numerous villi but less Brunner's glands, it also presents many large circular folds called plicae circulares (Pansky, 2007). These circular folds increase the surface area for nutrient absorption; in fact the absorption of the majority of nutrients takes place here. Now the chyme and I are entering into the ileum which is the final and longest segment of the small intestine. This tract of the
The process of digestion first begins in the mouth by in taking food (bolus). The teeth help with masticating (chewing and breaking food particles down) allowing for swallowing and increasing surface area for chemical digestion. Enzymes found in saliva also facilitates with the chemical break down of food primarily starches and fats. The food swallowed then enters into the esophagus (a tube connecting the mouth and stomach). Peristalsis helps the esophagus to push the food in the direction of the stomach. The stomach contents are highly acidic (doesn’t affect the stomach mucosa since cells secrete mucus allowing the stomach wall to be protected) with pH levels between 1.5-2.5 allowing microorganisms to be killed, breaking down of food, and activating digestive enzymes producing a thick substance known as chyme. However, breaking down of foods further occurs in the small intestine consisting of: bile created from the liver, enzymes formed from the small intestine, and the pancreas facilitate with further digestion as well as HCI denatures (unfolds proteins) allowing them to be available to attack by digestive enzymes (also responsible in breaking down the protein). The pyloric sphincter separates the stomach from the small intestine allowing the chime to drop into the small intestine. The small intestine is the primary site for
Once again we have been miniaturized in the submarine to continue the fantastic voyage of the digestive system. We will be touring a 55-year-old male. The host will be having a hamburger, French fries, and a root beer. We will be tracing lunch through the digestion process. Digestion is the process of turning the food that is ate into energy needed to survive and involves creating waste to be eliminated. (Mohan, 2010). The digestive tract is a long twisting tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus, called the alimentary canal. The wall of this tube is fashioned of four layers of tissue. The layers are listed from the inside coat to the outside coat: mucosa or mucus membrane, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The hollow space
Food is digested by being broken down, by a variety of enzymes, into useful nutrients, which are transported around the body to places where they can be of use, and into waste products, which are excreted from the body. The digestive system is made up of a number of organs, oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and small and large intestines, these are then separated into the digestive tract and the digestive organs. The digestive tract is, essentially, a single continuous tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus, in a fully grown adult it is approximately seven metres long. Food travels through the digestive tract and the digestive organs produce the enzymes and chemicals that are responsible for
The small intestine continues breaking down the food and absorbs most of the nutrients. The liver and the pancreas release bile and enzymes into the small bowel to aid in this process. The small intestine joins the large intestine or large bowel, a muscular tube about five feet long. The first part of the large bowel, called the colon continues to absorb water and mineral nutrients from the food matter and serves as a storage place for waste matter. The waste matter left after this process goes into the rectum, the final 6 inches, or so of the large bowel. From there, it passes out of the body through the anus.
From the abomasum, the digested food will move to the small intestine. The digesta is change from acidic to alkaline with the secretion of bile which the pH is very high. This will allow the digestion of different feed nutients. There, enzyme will continue the digestion of feeds and microbes. Most of the absorption occurs in the small
THE DUODENUM has received the food matter, now called chyme, via the pyloric sphincter, for further chemical digestion to take place. Bile is transported to the duodenum via the ducts of the liver and gall bladder, in addition, pancreatic juices are received by the ducts of the pancreas. The pancreatic juice is alkaline in nature and therefore is able to neutralize the gastric acid. The enzymes of the pancreatic juice activate on the fats, carbohydrates and proteins; Amylase – divides long chain carbohydrates
In the digestion process that are stimulating events and inhibitory events that can occur. First, the cephalic phase, that occurs before food actually enters the stomach. It is stimulated by the sight, smell, the idea of foods. This activates the vagus nerve to stimulate gastric glands to prepare the stomach for its digestion process duty. An inhibitory event can be when the brain is stimulated by worry or stress and can cause a loss of appetite or depression. The gastric phase activates short and long reflexes of the stomach and food chemicals such as caffeine, peptide, elevation of the pH activate chemoreceptors. Gastrin plays a major role in this phase, by stimulating stomach gland secretions. An inhibitory factor is an emotional stress. Intestinal phase is
The small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract that lies between the stomach and the large intestine. This is the place where maximum digestion and absorption of food takes place. The small intestine is divided into three regions – the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. When undigested food enters the small intestine, various juices and enzymes act upon it to digest it. Once the food is digested properly, it is ready for absorption. The walls of the small intestine are folded many times over to increase the surface area of the small intestine, which helps to maximize the absorption of nutrients.