Obesity Is A Significant Risk Factor For A Number Of Adults

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Over two-thirds of adults in the United States are considered overweight or obese [1]. Obesity is a significant risk factor for a number of chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome [2], [3], [4]. Metabolic syndrome is a chronic disease characterized by the presence of individual risk factors including: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia (high plasma triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)), hyperglycemia, and hypertension [3, 5, 6]. When evaluating the individual components of metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance are also considered risk factors for CVD [3]. High fat mass (FM), especially in the form of visceral fat (VF), is commonly…show more content…
The MHO have similar amounts of subcutaneous fat as those who are metabolically at risk, but have less VF [8, 10, 11]. However, it should also be noted that MHO still had a significant amount of VF, subcutaneous fat, and total body fat [10], [5], which may influence hormones, future development of other risk factors, and energy expenditure.
Many studies have shown that high VF is significantly related to insulin resistance [11]. Normal weight individuals with low subcutaneous fat, but increased VF had greater insulin resistance than those with lower VF [8]. When evaluating this relationship in obese, metabolically at risk obese had more VF and greater insulin resistance than MHO [5]. On the other hand, subcutaneous fat seems to be associated with increased levels of leptin [11], a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that signals the amount of energy stores (fat mass) available in the body [12]. Leptin levels are positively correlated with FM [12], with obese individuals exhibiting high leptin concentrations [11]. Since obese individuals have an excess of body fat, high concentrations of leptin should decrease energy intake and increase energy expenditure which would promote a return to normal weight. Despite the potential physiological function, the role of leptin in energy expenditure is not completely understood. Research has demonstrated obese individuals to have high
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