Obesity Is Defined As A Body Mass Index

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1. Introduction
a. The prevalence of obesity in the United States has doubled over the last two decades (Pomerantz et al, 2010) and tripled over the last three decades (Taylor et al, 2006); similar trends are also occurring worldwide (Sabharwal and Root, 2012).
i. In children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific CDC BMI-for-age growth charts (Ogden et al, 2012).
1. Severe obesity is defined as a BMI at or above the 99th percentile (Ogden et al, 2012). ii. According to a 2012 study by Ogden et al, 17% of those aged 2-19 years old were identified as obese and 4-6% were identified as severely obese.
1. Another study in 2013 found that the ‘severely obese’ was the “fastest growing subcategory of obesity” (Kelly et al, 2013).
b. With this rise in pediatric obesity, recent literature has focused on the associated cardiovascular and metabolic complications.
c. Although childhood obesity is associated with comorbidities including HTN, HL, glucose intolerance, and sleep apnea, the leading cause of death of children and adolescents is caused by unintentional injury (Adams et al, Backstrom et al).
i. Obese patients have a higher Injury Severity Score (ISS), experienced more intra-abdominal solid organ and hollow viscus injuries and more orthopedic injuries including pelvic fractures, bilateral tibia fractures, and femur fractures which required operation. Obese patients were more likely to
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