Obesity and Cancer - Linked to What Level?

2013 Words Aug 12th, 2014 9 Pages
BSE631 TermPaper Vidur Kumar (Y8560) Obesity and cancer – linked to what level? Abstract –
Obesity today is a major health issue in populations across the globe. The lifestyle changes occurring in the 21st century have resulted in ‘abundance’ of all things – including that of visceral fat in all age‐groups across the globe. There are many health‐conditions already linked with obesity – such as diabetes, high‐blood‐pressure, congestive heart‐failure, reproductive complications, etc – but, could being obese make one susceptible to cancer? Or possibly make for a worse cancer prognosis? These issues are addressed in this report, with references to many studies performed at the population level, and at the molecular level –
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And has been positively correlated with visceral obesity and large prostrate tumors [4]. Studies have shown that leptin promotes the proliferation of androgen‐independent prostate cancer cell lines. It has also been shown to promote vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo, processes that are crucial to allow cancer progression. Also, it has been positively correlated with increased prostrate cancer cell migration (implying invasion and metastasis) [5]. Mechanism of action ‐ The proliferative response of prostate cancer cells to leptin has been shown to involve intracellular signalling molecules such as phosphatidyl‐inositol 3‐kinase (PI3‐K) and c‐Jun NH2‐terminal kinase (JNK). [10] o Interleukin‐6 – one third of the circulating level secretion of IL‐6 is from adipose tissue. It is directly proportional to visceral obesity and insulin resistance. Its normal role being in modulation of immune response and cell‐functions – it is basically a growth inhibitor. However, recently it has been shown to undergo a transition in its role from growth inhibitor associated with neuroendocrine differentiation to stimulator accompanied by androgen receptor activation in prostrate cancer progression [6]. Prostrate cancer cultures have been shown to secrete high levels of IL‐6, and it is believed that chronic exposure to this adipokine