Everything that I had felt in the past year summarized by three words, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, or OCD. The psychiatrist seemed unperturbed as she told me, as though this was common. It felt comforting originally, knowing that I wasn’t the only one who’s felt this way, but that feeling swiftly turned into despondency. Those three letters have become my identity, I am no longer Emma. On many occasions, I have met people who lack understanding when it comes to this disorder. Their faces burned into my memory as they speak, “Oh, Emma, that’s no big deal! I’m a little OCD too,” or “Emma, everyone has a touch of OCD,” or “I totally relate, I’m so OCD about my school supplies, I like it when my folders are in rainbow order.” Each time the word used incorrectly, the more normalized it becomes and the less help I receive. This is because if everyone has a “touch of OCD,” then why is it so crucial for me to be assisted? Why should I have to remain isolated in guidance when it happens to everyone? OCD has been portrayed by the media in a way that is incredibly inaccurate and
As time has progressed, light has been shed on the causes and symptoms of mental disorders. Like many mental disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder was once linked to dissociation with religious beliefs. In the seventeenth century OCD was seen as a symptom of being isolated from religion and religious practices. It wasn’t until the nineteenth century that obsessive-compulsive disorder began to be recognized as a mental disorder unrelated to religion. The route to this recognition began as stated by Koran (2007) by distinguishing obsessions from delusions and compulsions from impulsions. The source of the disorder, however, was still a matter to be argued on. The idea that OCD was a result of any level of insanity was disregarded after the mid-eighteen hundreds. For the most part, French psychiatrists believed it was a result of an emotional distress and “volitional” defects but not before placing it in a very broad spectrum of many other phobias we see today. German Psychiatrists, on the other hand, associated OCD with an issue on the intellectual level and as Magnan (1835-1916) put it, OCD was the “psychosis of degeneration.”
Obsessive-Compulsive disorder is a type of severe anxiety disorder that impacts an individual’s entire life and way of functioning. Obsessions are considered intrusive and recurrent thoughts or impulses that cannot be removed through reasoning. Compulsions are the repetitive and ritualistic behaviors and actions that associate with the obsessions. These compulsions are to be performed according to specific rules or methods and are thought to prevent or reduce stress and feared situations. Both compulsions and obsessions cause disabling levels of anxiety. The individual affected is often able to recognize the behavior as excessive and irrational, but is unable to control or stop the behaviors without intervention.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mental disorder which it symptoms are having routines, or thoughts repeatedly with no ability to avoid the fear and stop them. Some people are aware of those habits, and they realize that those rituals do not make sense, but there is no an easy way to get out of them. Counting all the clothes, shoes, magazines and lie in in a straight line are illustrations when obsessive-compulsive symptoms arrive.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) was once considered a rare disease, but today, it is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders present among society. OCD is described as “intrusive thoughts or images (obsessions), which increase anxiety, and by repetitive or ritualistic actions (compulsions), which decrease anxiety” (Stein, 2002). In the DSM-IV, Obsessive compulsive disorder can be diagnosed through observable behaviours or repetitive mental habits. Symptoms include; the constant washing of hands, and/or fears concerning danger to others or to self – resulting in frequent paranoia. OCD has been linked with lesions in various neurological circuits of the brain due to the consumption of dopamine agonists (for example, cocaine). In order for obsessive compulsive disorder to take clinical significance, dysfunction and distress must follow symptoms. The treatment of OCD was initially developed in the Freudian era, as psychoanalytical treatment was seen as the most effective treatment at the time for mind management. Conversely, recent empirical evidence proved otherwise. Pharmacological therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy, also known as systematic desensitization are nowadays the most prominent remedies used in treating obsessive compulsive disorder.
Considering the secrecy surrounding OCD symptoms, it is important for family members to pay attention to early signs of ritualistic behaviors becoming troublesome. When OCD is suspected, a comprehensive clinical evaluation – including detailed interviews with parents and, if possible teachers – is required in order to check the obsessions, sensory phenomenon and compulsions in the case. In younger children, OCD features might appear subtly during play activities or drawing. It is vital to differentiate between obsessive compulsive symptoms and normal childhood behavior, such as the normal practice or actions during playtime, food time or bedtime. In this context, the information about degree of distress, impairment and time consumed performing rituals should provide enough data to decide whether or not treatment is warranted. Moreover, it is also important to assess insight and the family’s perception of the symptoms, as well as how family members deal with the patient.
Obsessive compulsive disorder, also know as ODC, is a complex mental illness that involves repeating thoughts know as obsessions and repeating actions know as compulsions (Parks 8). OCD affects males and females of all types (Parks 8). According to the National Institute of Mental Health, approximately one-third of OCD cases in adults begin in the childhood stages (Chong and Hovanec 11). Scientists believe that OCD is related to a faulty brain circuitry that could possibly be hereditary (Parks 9). Theories based on more recent studies show that OCD is a biological brain defect (Sebastian 32). It affects the frontal lobes of the brain (Ken and Jacob 1). Many OCD symptoms have been recorded since the 15th century (Sebastian 21). By the 19th century, science had developed more and explained that OCD was a mental and emotional disorder instead of supernatural forces (Sebastian 29). OCD is two times more common of a disease than schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (Ken and Jacob 1). There are three forms of OCD. The three forms are episodic, continuous, and deteriorative. Episodic OCD has recurring episodes of illness lasting for a limited time.
The assigned article of this week is about Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder titled Two-Way Mirror: Facing a Daughter’s O.C.D by Beth Boyle Machlan. To clarify the definition of OCD, there are two main features of the disorder: one is obsessions meaning “persistent and intrusive thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images”, another is compulsions which include “repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors or mental acts that are performed in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly” (lecture). In the article, there is a girl named Lucy who may have OCD, and the article seems wrote by her mother. Lucy’s mom has been suffer from depression and bipolar, and Lucy has a history of Tic disorder (article). The story basically depicted in detail about Lucy’s first session with the doctor, Clark, regarding her OCD.
"Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions or compulsions". ( Kring, Johnson, Davison,& Neal 2014) The obsession individuals with OCD experiences are excessive and it affects individuals with functioning normally in their everyday life. According to Kring et al., (2014 ) obsessions are intrusive and recurring thoughts, images, or impulses that are persistent and uncontrollable and often appear irrational to the person experiencing them. Compulsions are when someone has to do the same repetitive behavior in order to relieve distress of what is in their thoughts. People with this disorder also feel anxious and have other anxiety disorders. "Though OCD was considered a type of
OCD is taboo to some people, but it has come a long way since it was first discovered. The disorder was first discovered by Jean-Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the psychiatric literature in 1838 (Fornaro, 2009). When obsessive compulsive disorder was first
Obsessions are unwanted ideas or impulses that repeatedly well up in the mind of a person with OCD. These are thoughts and ideas that the sufferer cannot stop thinking about. A sufferer will almost always obsess over something which he or she is most afraid of. Common ideas include persistent fears that harm may come to self or a loved one, an unreasonable concern with becoming contaminated, or an excessive need to do things correctly or perfectly. Again and again, the individual experiences a disturbing thought, such as, "My hands may be contaminated -- I must wash them" or "I may have left the gas on" or "I am going to injure my child." These thoughts tend to be intrusive, unpleasant, and produce a high degree of anxiety. Sometimes the obsessions are of a violent or a sexual nature, or concern illness. People with OCD who obsess over hurting themselves or others are actually less likely to do so than the average person. Obsessions are typically automatic, frequent, distressing, and difficult to control or put an end to by themselves. With these reoccurring obsessions continuously being played in the sufferers mind, they start performing repetitive acts that reassure them that their hands aren’t dirty, or the gas for the stove is turned of. This response to their obsession is called a compulsion.
Obsessive compulsive disorder is influenced by neurological factors with symptoms such as repeating steps, continuously washing their hands, and having a fear of objects like germs. Although there is no cure, there are treatments such as medication and therapy that can help lessen the patient’s anxiety and discomfort.
Obsessive compulsive disorder was touched upon by Sigmund Freud in 1909. In “Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis” Freud described a patient he had named “Rat Man”, who was a young man with a fairly well versed education. “Rat man suffered from blasphemous and sexual obsessions and vivid, recurring images of rats devouring him and his father.” (Summers, 54) Freud believed that the above listed symptoms were a result of failure to have been properly toilet trained, and also a form of the Oedipus complex.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder that is associated with reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and uncontrollable thoughts that drives the patients to repeat something over and over again. The Aviator movie is trying to depict this disorder through the character Howard Hughes. The story captures the real-life experience of Hughes who was a successful filmmaker and aeronautic engineer in Hollywood between 1920s and 1940s. He was both rich, talented and notoriously eccentric. Hughes showed symptoms of OCD which were very severe and incapacitating at some points. His conditions deteriorated progressively from bad to worst throughout his lifetime, though in most parts of the film he is depicted as functioning relatively normally. This paper will focus on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and how it has been depicted in The Aviator movie through the character Howard Hughes.