Obstructive Sleep Apnea At School Aged Children Presented With Nocturnal Enuresis

2104 WordsOct 28, 20169 Pages
Obstructive sleep apnea in school aged children presented with nocturnal enuresis INTRODUCTION Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is an abnormal breathing pattern during sleep characterized by snoring and increased respiratory effort and with variable severity where obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) constitutes the most severe form of it. Childhood OSA has been accepted recently to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including both cognitive and behavioural deficits. (1) In a small study, childhood OSA was also related to potential neuronal injury in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. (2) Multiple risk factors have been identified as a risk factor but still the most widely accepted risk factor is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Childhood OSA has different clinical manifestations as snoring, witnessed apnoeas, labored breathing, restless sleep and others. (3) Nocturnal enuresis (NE) – i.e. intermittent nocturnal bedwetting in children ≥5 years old –is a complex problem that associated with increased prevalence in males, low socioeconomic status and educational level of parents, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), familial history of enuresis, or psychological issues as separated parents, sexual abuse, and death in the family.(4-7) NE has been recognized as a manifestation of childhood OSA. Alexopoulos et al (8) reported in their study that subjects with habitual snoring were at increased risk of primary NE compared to those without

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