The coral reef surveyors were instructed to find the best sites that they believed had the most living coral and were thought to be least affected by human activities. This would allow Hodgson to determine if human activities were having an appreciable effect on the supposed pristine coral reefs, which were distant from urban centers. The invertebrate survey was undertaken at two depth intervals of 3m and 10m. Four 0.5 m wide by 20 m long belts were placed on the coral reef. Over a period of 3-5 minutes the observers counted the number of invertebrates found on the belts. The coral survey was performed, by placing four 20 m long belts on the coral substrate. At 0.5 m intervals the substrate on which the belts were lying was examined and recorded.
From my recent work with Prof. Fernando Siringan (marine geologist), I have gained skills in deep diving and in piloting a submersible for surveying depths up to 200 meters. During my graduate research with Prof. Annette Juinio-Meñez (invertebrate ecologist), I have studied the biodiversity, distribution, behavior and taxonomy of shallow-water sea cucumbers. Although my sites were species-rich, populations were critically low due to unregulated fishing. Through these, I have become adept at finding and distinguishing species based on morphological characters (e.g. microscopic
Silvershell Beach is the home to many different aquatic species and other forms of wildlife. Last lab block the class and I went into the ocean at Silvershell beach and took seven different seine net samples. With each sample we took, we noticed a variety of different organisms. As we moved around different areas of the ocean, we would come out with changing species and number of species that we did not find in other areas of the water. Species we found included sea robin, hermit crabs, moon jellies, minnows, shrimp, eels, and more. Sample one and two were taken from around the same area in the water and there was a reappearance of three of the species. In sample one we found hermit crabs, minnows, moon jellies, and a sea robin. In sample two
The Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network was created to assess the quality of aquatic environments and ecosystems using benthos organisms as biomarkers (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 2007). Exclusively used in Ontario, this biomonitoring program assesses ecological function and condition of streams, rivers, lakes, and wetlands across the province (The Dorset Environmental Science Centre, 2017). The OBBN protocol is ideal for assessing water quality because of the use of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Borisko, et al. 2007). Since macroinvertebrates are easy and inexpensive to collect, determining water quality can be conducted continuously over the course of the year, across many locations (Borisko, et al. 2007; Ontario Ministry of the
Trego works at the Conservation Ecology Lab at San Diego State University in California. She reported her team’s early findings on December 14, at the Society for Marine Mammalogy meeting in San Francisco.
Kathy Conlan is an expert in understanding the weird and wonderful world of marine creatures that live deep under the Arctic ice. She specializes in marine benthic biology and amphipod systematics. Kathy studies how human and natural changes affect marine life in the Arctic and Antarctic, the effects of pollution on marine life as well as global warming. She is past chief officer for Life Sciences in the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and is a judge for SCAR’s Martha T. Muse Prize for Science and policy in Antarctica, represents Canada for the Canadian Committee on Antarctic Research, taught at Huntsman Marine Science Centre and Students On Ice, mentors university students and gives speaches and “Show and tells” at the museum.
"Climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system that persists for several decades or longer" (Montgomery, 2015). Climate change (or global warming) can be caused by a natural progress such as sun 's radiations and volcanoes, or it can be caused by human 's actions such as land use, deforestation, and pollution. (Hardy, 2003).This phenomenon not only affects the environment, but it also affects human lives. Alaska is the largest state in the United States. It includes lands on both sides of the Arctic Circle. Sixteen national wildlife refuges are home to a great variety of flora and fauna. In the past 60 years. The Alaska 's environment changed drastically; the climate is warming up as twice as much in comparison to all the other states. This essay will discuss firstly the climate change in the Alaskan environment. Then it will highlight the changes in the ocean and costs, the effects that global warming is having on Alaska 's natives and the melting permafrost. It will then finally address who is responsible for this effects and some measures that can be taken.
The intertidal rocky shore of Caloundra Beach is inhabited by diverse range of biodiversity of animals and plants, many of which have developed high levels of adaptations throughout their existence. The very boundary of marine and terrestrial ecosystem, this environment is subjected to extremes of the physical environment such as temperature, desiccation, wave turbulence as well the ecological interactions that commonly occur in biotic communities (e.g. competition, predation). However Rocky intertidal shores are easily accessible by humans and provide an enjoyable opportunity for passive recreation and for science and environmental education as well.
As concerns about the ocean and how it will be affected by climate change rise, turning to animals may be our best bet. After all, discovered about the same time as this were caterpillars that are able to digest plastic. In both cases, scientists may be able to harness animal capabilities to protect the environment. Unfortunately, DeepPIV only collected flow measurement from 24 creatures. Furthermore, only the footage of 10 giant larvaceans was analyzed. Although more research is needed, I believe these discoveries could lead to more breakthroughs in the fields of climate science and oceanography, and possibly even help us find ways of protecting oceans from increased acidity and
Lose bearings: The plausibility that the vessel may get misplaced due to route mistakes or destitute climate conditions may alarm everybody on board.
The COral Reef Airborne Laboratory, or CORAL, is a water mission in the biosphere that will attempt to measure the condition of certain coral reefs and create empirical models that show the relationship between the condition of these reefs and other factors using both field and air observations. The biogeophysical factors being observed include biodiversity, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically available radiation, aragonite saturation state, significant wave height, and the threat levels of coastal development, marine pollution, overfishing, watershed pollution, and integrated local threat (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, n.d.). CORAL will help marine biologists monitor the condition of coral reefs and predict the future of those reefs with both field and air observation.
In statistical terms, the GBR is a habitat for 400 coral species, 500 seaweed species, 4,000 mollusk species, 1,500 fish species, 20 sea snake species, six turtle and dugong species, and over 200 bird species. It is additionally visited by about 30 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises. The GBR is vital to the survival of many of these species, such as the dugong, whose GBR population is one of the largest in the world. It is not surprising that such an extensive ecosystem was declared a World Heritage Area in 1981 by meeting all four of the natural heritage demands. These criteria involve geological representations of evolution, current biological and ecological processes, outstanding beauty, and considerable biodiversity (Chadwick and Storrie p.1-2, CRC p.1-2, Guynup p.22).
When I was twelve, I visited the Catalina Island Marine Institute (CIMI) on a school trip. Over the course of that weekend, I got my first hands on experience studying the Pacific Ocean and it’s marine life. We learned about the growth rates of kelp, the different ecosystems in the Catalina area, and even went snorkeling in their bay.
For many years humans have struggled to discover the deepest parts of the ocean and have also struggled with discovering space. We could not go really deep into the ocean, because humans can not withstand the pressure that the ocean produces. But now there is a robot that can reach the ocean floor called “The Benthic Rover”. With that new robot, scientist will be able to record how changes on the surface of the ocean will impact the marine animals below. “What is special about the rover is that we will be able to stay in the deep parts of the ocean for a really long time collecting seasonal changes data” (Engineer Alana Sherman). With Benthic Rover,
Oceans cover over 70% of our planet, yet very little is known about their biological content, physical systems, and how, both together and individually, they affect our planet. Understanding the affect the ocean has on weather, climate changes, and the ecosystems of the planet are of ever-increasing interest to the human population. Studies, experiments, and more are currently being conducted by various means, sources, and organizations. Due to the this vast amount of monitoring, a need has arisen to collect and combine this data into one common database that more than a few individuals and organizations have access to. In order to meet this need the Integrated Ocean Observing System,