Operation Blue Rag, By San Diego

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not have officers assigned to gangs on either a full-time or part-time basis. Their conclusions underscored the necessity for rapid, multi-agency, coordinated responses to control illegal gang activities (Torres, S. 1998). Operation Blue Rag, a program developed in San Diego, California, focused on the city 's black street gangs, while Operation Red Rag, implemented the following year, targeted "Blood" or Piru gangs. They were both federally funded through the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement Demonstration Project. The goal of both programs was to reduce violence in the community by sending dangerous gang members to prison on charges stemming from their involvement with cocaine (Davidson et al., 1991) (Torres, S. 1998). …show more content…

(Torres, S. 1998) Research indicates that fear of crime, whether self-imposed or realistic, can immobilize individuals, harm the local economy and negatively impact social interactions as well as the quality of life (Albanese, 1990 Skogan (1987) argues that crime victims believe that more crime exists, are worried about victimization and attempt to protect themselves. Parker and Ray (1990) as well as Krannich et al. (1989) revealed victimization to be a predictor related to fear of crime. Additional support for these findings was provided by Smith and Hill (1991), who showed that actual victimization appears to increase fear of crime by increasing the perception of vulnerability. (Torres, S. 1998) Research also shows that fear of crime among minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status is related to their vulnerability in the urban environment (Liska et al., 1982). The elderly who are physically vulnerable and less agile are more fearful of crime even though they are less likely to be victims. (Torres, S. 1998) The proliferation and presence of gangs in the United States is also linked to the concept of social incivilities and increased fear of crime. This problem of fear does not go away. The people not only have a constant fear, it continues to the next generation of people in

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