Ophthalmic Disease Essay

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Major ophthalmic diseases and disorders include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataracts, cancers, corneal wear, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, inflammation, keratoconus, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. The following section is a summary and a discussion of the progress on the research on injectable hydrogels in the treatment of the aforementioned diseases and disorders. 3.1 Corneal abrasion and keratoconus 3.1.1 Cause of disease and treatment The epithelial surface of the cornea is vulnerable to mechanical wear and may cause temporary pain and reduced vision. The light abrasion may be restored by the reconnection of epithelium cells, but severe damage may require antibiotics and a sealant to prevent infection and…show more content…
Studies in a rabbit model revealed desirable pocket healing with little evidence of scarring and normal keratocyte appearance. Stem cells have also been utilized for the regeneration of a worn cornea. A study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with a thermoresponsive injectable carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC) hydrogel found that the cell viability and cluster of differentiation (CD) 44+ proportion of iPSCs were increased. The wound healing in abrasion-injured corneas was facilitated by the combination of stem cells and the hydrogel. The study also found that the CHC hydrogel has effects in reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restoring the corneal epithelial thickness, thus further improving the reconstruction of damaged cornea. The CHC hydrogel shows a potential as a stem cell delivery system for the enhancement of corneal wound treatment [51]. Current treatment of keratoconus includes cornea transplant surgery and corneal collagen crosslinking by Riboflavin/UV light [52]. A PEG injectable hydrogel containing Tyr-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (YRGDS) peptides was developed as a culture system for studying corneal keratocytes [53]. Keratocytes encapsulated in hydrogels remained viable for over 4 weeks with desirable mophology, and a hydrogel can support the production of collagen, biglycan, keratocan, and related DNA. However,
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