Opioid Receptors Essay

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Opioid receptors can be separated into two different categories: classic and non-classic. Classic consists of the Mu (), Kappa (), Delta () receptors[15]. While the Non-classic includes only ORL1[15]. As shown in Figure 9, presynaptic neutrons contain opioid receptors are G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane helical twist alongside three extracellular and intracellular loops[15]. Further, G-proteins are typically made of three subunits which include , , and . These receptors can be activated by either an endogenous peptide or an exogenous drug that acts as an agonist[16]. In this case, morphine is an exogenous drug that can mimic the response of an endogenous peptide such as endorphins[16]. If opioid receptors is inactive, the Ca2+ ion channels are open which permits the flow of Ca2+ ions into the presynaptic neuron. Simultaneously, the K+ ion channel is closed that prevents any release of K+ ions to the extracellular space.…show more content…
Once an agonist such as morphine attaches itself to the receptor and starts the activation process. This closes the Ca2+ ion channels and opens the K+ ion channel. The release of K+ ions from the intracellular space to the extracellular space will yield presynaptic inhibition.[15] The effects of -opioid receptor activation results in euphoria, sedation, respiratory depression, and pain relief[16]. Once an individual receives extreme amounts on morphine, the body will not be able to manage the activation or deactivation of the -opioid receptor. This leads to adverse effects on the individual which includes asphyxia, hallucinations, confusion, delirium, suppressive breathing, and eventually death[18]. Further, it was determine that the on average the minimum lethal dose for morphine is 200 mg which can lead to life threatening respiratory
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