According to Barkley (1997), oppositional defiant disorder is categorized as a pattern of aggressive defiance behavior that lasts for about six months. ODD ranges from moderate non-compliant behavior to total defiant behavior. Children diagnosed with ODD will meet both non-compliance and defiance criteria. A child who is diagnosed with defiance disorder will refuse to listen to a reasonable order and will act out
When children display defiant behavior and argue with adults it can be a nightmare for parents. How can parents tell if the defiant behavior is a part of normal development or something more? The something more is Oppositional defiant disorder commonly known as ODD. Oppositional defiant disorder has “enduring patterns of negativistic, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures, as well as an inability to take responsibility for mistakes, leading to placing blame on others” (Sadock, M.D. & Saddock, M.D., 2007).
Oppositional Defiant Disorder or ODD is a very common disorder. According to the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry ODD is the “top leading causes of referrals to the youth mental health services” (The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1993). Although this disorder is very common it often goes untreated due to factors that will be later covered. When a person has ODD they are often very irritable, argumentative, and defiant. While ODD could seem like it is just a phase that a person is going through it can be more serious than that. ODD can lead to many problems in a person’s life, for example being able to have a healthy relationship with family members, keeping a job, or even graduating from school. ODD does not just effect the
Conduct disorder (CD) represents one of the most disruptive behavior disorders of childhood.(1) CD continuos to be the predominant juvenile disorder seen in mental health and community clinics, and is of great concern because of its high degree of impairment and poor diagnosis. (2) It is characterized by a persistent and repetitive pattern of aggression, non-complaint, intrusive, and poorly self controlled behaviors that violate either rights of others or norms of society. These behaviors have a significant impact on the daily functioning of the child or adolescents and on their parents. (3,4). The prevalence of CD varied widely between as low as 1 % to as high as 16 % among children and adolescents. (5) These disparities are more likely due
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), opposition defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are three distinct disorders based upon their respective diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5. If ODD and CD were mild forms of ASPD, then there would need to be causal relationship between the childhood manifestations of ODD and CD and the adult manifestation of ASPD. There is evidence of comorbidity between ODD and CD, and also evidence to suggest that children diagnosed with these disorders may go on to develop ASPD later in life; however, correlation does not equal causation. The three disorders have subtle but important differences in their associated behaviors, underlying causes, treatment outcomes, and neurological signs.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder, also know as ODD, is a consistent pattern of negative behavior demonstrated by a child or teenager who often argues, displays aggressive behavior, steals and/or destroys property. Parents and children with this extreme behavior disorder often are blamed and face undue, unhelpful judgement. The ODD Lifeline parenting program takes the blame away and restores parent dignity while providing real solutions to end the oppositional defiant child.
According to Richard Rowe (2010), many people will argue that oppositional defiant disorder should not be diagnoseable illness. In order to be diagnosed with this disorder, the child must have shown symptoms for at least six months or more. They believe that this kind of behavior is actually “normal” when the particular age group range is taken into consideration. It is heavily debated that almost everyone will go through a stage where they will not take authority figures as seriously and this is where the child learns to be more dependent on themselves and finds their own voice in the world. Others argue that oppositional defiant disorder is actually a precursor to the development of more serious disorders that affect behavior, as they develop into their young adulthood stage and further. Researchers have conducted studies to look into biological, psychological and cognitive factors that may play into the onset of this childhood disorder. Jeffrey Nevid (2014) explains that theorists have also designed discipline-focused treatments and analyzed the social issues
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is one of the most common clinical disorders in children and adolescents (Nock, Kazdin, Hirpi & Kessler, 2007). Greene et al. (2002) defines ODD as “a recurrent pattern of developmentally inappropriate levels of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures”. ODD primarily consists of stubborn (e.g., tantrums) and aggressive behaviors that the child attempts to rationalize based on the circumstances rather than view as consequential and problematic (Kazdin, 2010). Therefore, ODD can have serious implications for the child’s functioning at home, in school, and in the community, so parents of children with ODD are more likely to utilize child mental health services (Kazdin, 2010). The history, symptoms, diagnosis, prevalence, age of onset, duration, risk factors, comorbidity, and treatments of ODD will be discussed, as well as the rationale behind the revisions from the fourth (DSM-IV) to fifth editions (DSM-5) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
There is an array of negative behaviors associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). These include poor temperament, argumentative and vindictive attitudes. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition or
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is an example of a disruptive disorder. Although there are no clear cut causes of ODD, there are factors that play a role in the development of the disorder. They include biological factors, psychological factors, and social factors (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2009). Biological factors include having a parent with a history of ADHD, ODD, or Conduct Disorder (CD), a parent with a mood disorder such as depression or bipolar disorder, parent has a problem with drinking or substance abuse, there is a brain-chemical imbalance, exposure to toxins, and poor nutrition (2009). Psychological factors include having a poor relationship with one or more parent, a parent who is neglectful or absent, and having difficulty or inability to form social relationships or process social cues (2009).
The book for the class will become a starting point for talking about Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or ODD. Whitbourne and Halgin define that ODD describes children and adolescents who display angry or irritable moods, possess argumentative or defiant behavior and has vindictiveness that results in significant family or school problems (p. 249). Individuals who suffer from ODD can also be seen having these traits: they can easily and repeatedly lose their tempers, refuse orders and requests from others, and they will be deliberately trying to annoy other people around them. On key factor that individuals with ODD hold, is that they will try to blame others for their own behaviors and want other people to see them as a victim rather than the perpetrator.
The first thing I learned while gaining knowledge on ODD is that it is an adolescent disorder only once a child reaches eighteen years of age they are no longer considered to have ODD, but another disorder such as bipolar disorder. Knowing this will influence my practice of social work because I may be working with a client who meets all of the criteria for ODD, but if they are over eighteen I can narrow down their disorder to another disorder relating to ODD. Second, I never knew ODD was a disorder I always thought there was just conduct disorder (CD). This is good information to have because there are significant differences in the criteria for both disorders. While doing research on ODD and CBT I came across six tools to use to help treat
Bobby displays defiant behaviors in the context of being told what to do or when he does not get his way. He loses his temper, argues with adults and peers, refuses to comply with requests or rules, blames others for his mistakes, is very annoyed by other people, throws temper tantrums, and is often angry, spiteful, and resentful of others. These behaviors have resulted in significant distress for Bobby in the areas of his social and educational achievement. They have also led to significant strain in the relationships with his teachers, peers, and his mother. He does not display the blatant disregard for the rights of others or intentional behaviors designed to violate the rights of others it would be as would be seen in a Conduct Disorder.
There are four definitions of abnormality: statistical infrequency, deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately, and deviation from ideal mental health. Using the definitions separately can cause wrong diagnosis, so using elements from each four would reduce limitations from them.