Dorothea Orem’s theory accepts and describes the premise of self-directed personal care (Alligood et al., 2010). Orem’s theory also explains and predicts when the nurse will be needed once the illness has challenged an individual's functional capacity. The purpose of the theory is to focus on individual’s being able to care for themselves on their own, identify when nurses are needed to help individuals progress to better health. Besides, self-health care is put in place to acknowledge that nurses can aid individuals to get back to their functional baseline abilities on time. (Alligood et al.,
Dorothea Orem: Nursing Theory of “Self-care Deficit.” Dorothea Orem was born in1914 in Baltimore, Maryland. She earned her nursing diploma from the Providence Hospital School of Nursing in Washington, D.C., in 1930, before she went on to complete her Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Master of Science in Nursing at Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., in 1939 and 1945 respectively. Orem occupied numerous high profile nursing positions during her lifetime. She was director of nursing in various institutions and was a member of group of nursing theorists who formulated the framework for North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. She proposed Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing, which is made up of
Dorothea Orem created the self-care theory in 1959 and continued to build upon her theory until 2001. The purpose of Orem’s theory was to define nursing, discuss the relationship among the nurse and the patient, and to promote a clear understanding of the scope of nursing (Taylor, Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing, 2006). Today, Orem’s theory is widely known and is utilized in nursing curriculum, as well as continuing education topics for healthcare providers.
Personal History and Career Dorothea Orem is known as one of the foremost nursing theorists. She is credited with the development of a nursing grand theory, the self-care deficit nursing theory (SCDNT). The beginning of her career can be traced back to Washington, D.C. in the mid 1930’s. Though she was a Baltimore, Maryland native, Orem pursued her nursing education at Catholic University of America (CUA) in Washington, D.C., graduating with baccalaureate and Master’s degrees in 1939 and 1945 respectively. Following her education, Orem held many job positions across multiple nursing disciplines, including working as a private nurse, nurse educator, administrator, director, and private contractor (McEwen & Wills, 2011).
A Concept Analysis of Orem’s Self-Care The Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing impacts modern health as well as nursing more so than expected during its creation and evolution. The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2001) demanded the need for health care to shift from acute care setting to management of disease. Consequently, today’s health care is in the midst of a paradigm shift, as it redirects its attention towards patient centered care, disease prevention and wellness promotion. The Affordable Care Act implemented regulations, enforced by financial reimbursement to ensure that hospitals have shorter lengths of stay, lower readmission rates and strategies to enhance health promotion, disease prevention and improved quality of life (Taylor, 2012). The government has placed incredible demands on the health care system as baby boomers are aging and chronic diseases are becoming more complex requiring increased use of technology and nursing support. In order to meet the legislative requirements, administrators and educators must transition to the structure and concepts provided by the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory, for it is in this theory, nurses are empowered to better care for the patients as they present with complex self-care needs requiring specialized assistance from highly advanced, educated nurses who prepare these patients to return home better equipped for self-care despite their chronic conditions.
The Importance of Exercise and Other Self-Care Modalities for Nurses The profession of nursing requires a capacity and joy for caring and healing others both mentally and physically. Nurses spend their careers caring for patients and their families often in the worst and most frightening periods of their lives. Nursing responsibilities can be lengthy, stressful and physically and emotionally demanding. The demands of the nursing profession coupled with the nursing shortage and longer work hours put even more stress on nurses. Despite these extreme demands, many nurses do not fully appreciate the importance self-care. Yet without proper care for themselves, nurses are not able to provide the best care for their patients.
Treating the patient, treating the family: Using Orem's theory of self-care in family nursing practice Introduction The nursing process does not merely treat the patient as a physical body, but rather treats the patient holistically. The central philosophy of Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory "is that all patients want to care for themselves, and they are able to recover more quickly and holistically by performing their own self-care as much as they're able" (Dorothea Orem, 2012, Nursing Theory). However, although self-care may be the core of Orem's theory, the decision to engage in self-care must be facilitated by the patient's social and physical environment, of which the family can play a critical role in shaping.
Dorothea Orem ENVIRONMENT Context where self-care occurs. Can hinder or support self-care activities. Includes the family, work, community, health care system. Person (client/patient) self-care deficits are the result of environmental situations. HEALTH Promoted by adequate self-care Major areas for "self-care" patient education Maintaining health Enhancing health Includes: exercise & physical fitness nutrition and weight control stress management maintenance of social support systems environmental control
Dorthea E. Orem’s self-care model emphasizes both a patient 's ability and responsibility to care for themselves. Self-care as defined by Orem as “the practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf to maintain life, health, and well-being” (Catalano, 2015, p. 58). Since individuals function at varying levels, Orem has identified three levels of nursing care: wholly compensated care, partially compensated care, and supportive developmental care. This theories goal is to help each individual reach his or her maximum level of function and to take responsibility for his or her health (Catalano, 2015). Self-reliance is also core value in my own personal life. I believe that a person who is capable of performing any part of their own self-care should be encouraged to do so because it will help them become independent, improve their psychosocial status, and promote self worth at a time when they rely so heavily on other people for their care. Orem’s theory matches my own belief of the importance of independence and self-reliance because the main goal is to help patients become as self-reliant as possible in their healthcare. This theory emphasizes the important role of education in nursing in order to enable them to take control of their own health. Because of health deficits, some individuals may require more assistance from care providers. However, even these patients should be encouraged and allowed to do whatever they are able to do for
Orem’s Theory has helped lay the ground work for modern nursing. In 1971 her theory was first published and includes three related concepts: self-care, self-care deficit and nursing systems. Orem’s theory has given direction to many nurses, inspiring them to seek better ways to develop and express the knowledge base of nursing. The purpose of her theory is to help patients and their families maintain control of their health during their lifetime. The theory consists of three parts the nursing system, self-care and self-care deficit. Care is the primary focus and the ultimate goal is health restoration. Patients are allowed to have primary control over their health and letting healthcare providers educate, promote and encourage healthy
Core Concept The core concept of ‘The role of nursing’ was used in both Dorothea Orem’s self care model and in Virginia Henderson’s nursing care model. Dorothea
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory Biography Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory was born while Dorothea Orem (1917-2007) was working in the Department of Health Education and Welfare (HEW) as a curriculum consultant. At this time in the history of the profession, nursing was just emerging as a unique academic discipline. Orem's
A Concept Analysis of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Introduction Dorothea E. Orem devoted her life to defining nursing and the nurse’s role in improving the patient’s overall health, which she coined the Self-Care Deficit Theory. Orem’s theory is quite a complex one, which can be simplified by identifying that it is three theories in one: self-care theory, self-care deficit theory and nursing systems theory. In 1959, as Orem first began the evolution of the Self-Care Deficit Theory, she defined the nurse’s role as another self. This nursing theory is the foundation for nursing as it actually defines the art of nursing, the actions that drive the nurse and the nurse’s provision of care through the nursing systems theory. To place in simplistic terms, Orem assumes that all humans desire to care for self. In the self-care theory, she states that individuals are meant to care for themselves and their basic needs by promoting life, health, development and well-being (Banfield, 2011). When something happens that does not allow the human to care for self, a deficit occurs. This deficit drives the need for specialized nursing care to restore the human’s health so they can resume self-care.
Dorothea Orem’s Theory Three connecting theories developed by Dorothea Orem are the theory of self- care, the theory of self-care deficit and the theory of the nurse system (George, 2011). Self-care theory is offering an
Dorothea Orem’s Self Care Deficit Theory The theory focuses on the ability of a person to meet his or her own needs. Developed in the year 1970, Orem’s theory focused on the three various concepts, namely self-care, self-care deficit, and the nursing system. Self-care is a group of activities or processes that a person performs to maintain health, life, and wellbeing (Orem, 2001). For instance, self-care is being demonstrated when a chronic heart failure patient checks his or her weight daily, takes prescribes medications, and avoids salty foods. Self-care deficit happens when an individual is not able to provide effective self-care (Orem, 2011). Nurses are able to assist patients in this state by educating them with their disease condition and treatment compliance. A nursing