Organ Transplant Essay

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Organ Transplant
What is organ transplantation?
Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves replacing a failed organ with a healthy organ donated by another individual. Organ transplantation is often reserved as a last resort therapeutic option in certain individuals with end-stage organ disease. It is generally an option in individuals that have a life expectancy of 10 or more years. Patients frequently have to undergo a series of laboratory tests including screening for infectious diseases (eg, HIV, CMV, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis) and other conditions prior to being considered a transplant candidate. Individuals are also normally tested for illicit drug use and screened for coexisting psychological disorders
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Patients with end-stage kidney disease are also often bridged to kidney transplantation. They typically receive placement of a hemodialysis catheter or arteriovenous fistula in order to undergo dialysis three times per week. Dialysis machines act like the kidneys by filtering blood and balancing fluid and electrolyte levels.
Patients receiving lung transplantation often have respiratory failure and require continuous oxygen therapy. Occasionally, these individuals need assisted ventilation with a breathing machine (mechanical ventilation). Individuals with cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease are normally managed with medications to treat symptoms and complications of liver disease. They frequently receive therapeutic paracentesis and occasionally require a TIPS procedure prior to liver transplantation. Those with fulminant liver failure typically require urgent liver transplantation.
What laboratory tests are ordered in transplant recipients?
Commonly ordered blood tests in transplant recipients typically include a CMP (comprehensive metabolic panel), CBC (complete blood cell count), and thyroid function studies (TSH, free T4). A urine analysis, pregnancy test (in women of reproductive age), and urine drug screen are also normally obtained. Urine is also normally sent for bacterial culture. Your doctor may order blood tests evaluating for exposure to certain viruses such as human immunodeficiency
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