Organic Chemistry Experiment 10 Formal Report

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Organic Chemistry Laboratory – CH 200L (2012 – 2013) 2B-Ph Group 9 Experiment 10

Identifying Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives Through Classification Tests

Bianca Therese Rivera, Camille Aliana Rivera, Zarah Mae Roxas,
Ma. Rosario Teresa Saylo, Jean Darlene Semilla and Adrian Yu
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Santo Tomas, Espana Street, Manila 1008

Date Submitted: September 13, 2012
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Abstract

Carboxylic acid derivatives namely, acyl halides, acid anhydrides, esters and amides were classified through different reactivity tests. The samples used were acetyl chloride for acyl halide group, acetic anhydride for acid anhydride group, ethyl acetate for ester group,
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Methodology

A. Hydrolysis of Acid Derivatives

A.1. Acyl Halides and Acetic Anhydrides

One mL of water was placed in each two test tubes. The samples, acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride, were added separately to the test tubes by placing ten drops of each sample. A warming effect was noted from the reaction. The resulting mixtures were divided into two portions. To the first portion, an amount of one mL of 2% silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added. The formation of precipitate was observed. To the second portion, one mL of saturated sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and the evolution of gas was noted.

A. 2. Esters

To one mL of the sample, ethyl acetate, two mL of 25% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was added. The mouth of the test tube was covered with a marble and was heated in a boiling water bath for five minutes. The mixture was neutralized with 10% HCl solution. The odor was observed with a wafting motion.

A. 3. Amides

One mL of benzamide was treated with five mL of 10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and was heated to boiling afterwards. The reaction of the gas evolved during heating was tested by placing a piece of moist red litmus paper over the test tube. The observed reaction was noted.

B. Alcoholysis: Schotten-Baumann Reaction

A mixture of ten drops of acetic acid, one mL of ethanol and five drops of concentrated sulfuric acid

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