Organic Dyes Lab Report

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The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize two organic dyes then observe their effective dye strength on various synthetic and natural materials. This was achieved by means of chemical reactions outlined below, heat to increase the reaction rate, ice baths to precipitate out the product, vacuum filtration to isolate the product, washing with water and 95% ethanol to purify the product, and dying of the clothe to observe dye effectiveness. The test of the effectiveness of the dye required that the fabric absorb one wavelength and then reflect the opposing color, and then be able to keep the color through basic washing. The presence of the dye on the fabric can be caused by ionic interaction, hydrogen bonding, covalent bonding, or simply…show more content…
A diazonium coupling reaction then takes place where one of the bonds between the nitrogen atoms is broken and the electrons are transferred to create a bond between the far nitrogen and another aromatic ring with an electronegative substituent attached to it. This reaction produces a stable dye that is capable of resisting conditions that cause some dyes to fade such as light and washing. In this experiment the original aniline used was sulfanilic acid and the phenol added when the structure is converted to a diazonium ion is 2-naphthol. The combination of these two reactants resulted in the formation of Orange II. The structure of Orange II is shown below. Characteristics of both the phenol and aniline are present in the structure of the product, indicating that this is the expected product for the reaction of these two…show more content…
This also causes the percent yield to be unobtainable. The theoretical yield of the azo dye was found to be 0.922g of Orange II. Potential sources of error can be found during heating and cooling of the azo dye. Increased temperature during heating resulted in the dye being dissolved very well into the liquid, and when the flask was removed it was not properly cooled all of the way before being poured into the vacuum filtration system. Due to the solubility of the product in the solution, the improper cooling caused the solid to not precipitate out correctly, resulting in the lack of
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