Organization Management Theories

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
Graduate School of Management

ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

Wrriten Report on
CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY
NEOCLASSICAL THEORY

Organizational theory is the study of formal social organizations, such as businesses and bureaucracies, and their interrelationship with the environment in which they operate. It complements the studies of leadership, organizational behavior, management, industrial and organizational psychology, organization development and human resource studies among many other fields and professions.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORIES
(1900 - 1920) Classical Management Theory was introduced in the late 19th century during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial
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To counter soldiering and to improve efficiency, Taylor began to conduct experiments to determine the best level of performance for certain jobs, and what was necessary to achieve this performance.
Time Studies Taylor argued that even the most basic, mindless tasks could be planned in a way that dramatically would increase productivity, and that scientific management of the work was more effective than the "initiative and incentive" method of motivating workers. The initiative and incentive method offered an incentive to increase productivity but placed the responsibility on the worker to figure out how to do it. To scientifically determine the optimal way to perform a job, Taylor performed experiments that he called time studies, (also known as time and motion studies). These studies were characterized by the use of a stopwatch to time a worker 's sequence of motions, with the goal of determining the one best way to perform a job. The following are examples of some of the time-and-motion studies that were performed by Taylor and others in the era of scientific management.
Pig Iron If workers were moving 12 1/2 tons of pig iron per day and they could be incentivized to try to move 47 1/2 tons per day, left to their own wits they probably would become exhausted after a few hours and fail to reach their goal. However, by first conducting
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