Organizational Behavior- Motivation Theories

1023 WordsJun 2, 20095 Pages
ESSAY QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8 134. Differentiate between formal and informal groups. Formal groups are those defined by the organization’s structure, with designated work assignments establishing tasks. In formal groups, the behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. Informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. (Pages 123-124) 135. Differentiate the terms role identity, role perception, and role expectation. There are certain attitudes and actual behaviors consistent with a role, and they create the role…show more content…
If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity increases, but less than in the high-cohesiveness/high-norms situation. When cohesiveness and performance-related norms are both low, productivity will tend to fall into the low-tomoderate range. (Page 134) 141. Identify the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups and ways that you can encourage cohesiveness. To encourage group cohesiveness, you might try one or more of the following suggestions: (1) Make the group smaller. (2) Encourage agreement with group goals. (3) Increase the time members spend together. (4) Increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group. (5) Stimulate competition with other groups. (6) Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members. (7) Physically isolate the group. (Page 134) 142. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making. Groups generate more complete information and knowledge. Groups bring more input into the decision process. They offer increased diversity of views. This opens up the opportunity for more approaches and alternatives to be considered. Groups will almost always outperform even the best individual. Groups generate higher quality decisions. Finally, groups lead to increased acceptance of a solution. Members who participated in making a decision are likely to enthusiastically support the decision and encourage others to accept it. Groups also have drawbacks. They are time
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