Organizational Behaviour Meeting 1

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Introduction to OB
Study of Organizational Behavior

What is OB?
• The field that seeks increased knowledge of all aspects of behavior in organizational setting by systematically studying individual, group, and organizational process. OB Characteristics
• Applies the scientific method to practical managerial problems
– How can goals be set to enhance people’s job performance? – Under what conditions do individuals make better decision than groups?

• Focuses on three level of analysis:
– Individuals (work attitude, motivation)
– Groups (communication)
– Organizations (structure)

OB Characteristics
• Is multidisciplinary in nature
• Seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and the quality of life at work
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F.W. Taylor and Scientific
• Scientific Management
– The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process for higher efficiency. • Defined by Frederick Taylor in the late 1800’s to replace informal rule of thumb knowledge.
• Taylor sought to reduce the time a worker spent on each task by optimizing the way the task was done. Four Principles of Scientific
• Principles to increase efficiency:
1. Study the ways jobs are performed now and determine new ways to do them.
• Gather detailed time and motion information.
• Try different methods to see which is best.

2. Codify the new methods into rules.
• Teach to all workers the new method.

3. Select workers whose skills match the rules.
4. Establish fair levels of performance and pay a premium for higher performance.
• Workers should benefit from higher output

Problems with Scientific
• Managers frequently implemented only the increased output side of Taylor’s plan.
– Workers did not share in the increased output.

• Specialized jobs became very boring, dull.
– Workers ended up distrusting the Scientific
Management method.

• Workers could purposely “under-perform.”
– Management responded with increased use of machines and conveyors belts.

Frank and
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