Origins of Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet

1462 Words Jun 16th, 2009 6 Pages
Part I: Origins of PsychologyThe seven major perspectives in modern psychology are psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanist, cognitive, neuroscientific/biopsychological, evolutionary, and sociocultural.

Psychoanalytic: The founder of the psychoanalytic school of thought is Sigmund Freud. He believed that many psychological problems result from the conflicts that occur between "acceptable" behavior and "unacceptable" unconscious sexual or aggressive motives. His theory was called Psychoanalysis. Freud relied more on deductive reasoning rather than on rigorous research methods, hence making his approach non-scientific. Also, he laid emphasis on the importance of unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts.

Behaviorist: The founder of
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CorrelationalIdentify relationships and how well one variable predicts another. Helps clarify relationships between variables that cannot be examined by other methods and allows prediction.Researchers cannot identify cause and effectStatistical analysis of relationship between variables.

Biological Identify causation as well as description and predictionShares many or all of the advantages of experimental, descriptive and correctional researchShares many or all of the disadvantages of experimental, descriptive and correctional researchStudies the brain and other parts of the nervous system.

Compare and contrast: Experimental and Correlational methods.

Experimental research method helps to explain cause and effect whereas the correlational method does not. An experiment comprises of an independent variable (manipulating variable), dependent variable (the variable on which the effect is examined), and experimental and control groups. Also, while conducting an experiment, the researcher must make sure that all the extraneous variables in experimental and control conditions are held constant so that it does not influence the results. Furthermore, the researcher must take into consideration errors (biases) such as experimenter bias, participant bias amongst others that could also influence the results. Also, one of the most
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