Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when the body loses too much bone, makes too little bone, or both. As a result, bones become weak and may break from a fall or, in serious cases, from sneezing or minor bumps (nof.org). This skeletal disease is characterized by the increase in the fragility of bones as a result of reduced bone mass density and the deformation of the structure of bone tissue (Angin,Erden,Can, 849). Many patients with osteoporosis are instructed by their doctor to exercise; as this will improve their rehabilitation of this disease and lessen the pain associated with it.
Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by structural deterioration of bone tissue and reduced bone mineral density(BMD). Consequences include increased pain, increased risk of fracture, loss of mobility, and death (Osteoporosis Canada 2014).
“Thirty-five year old Donna Duckworth is learning how to care for her newborn of five weeks, when she bends over the baby’s crib and feels something give in her back. The next day and the following week, the pain becomes unbearable in her back. She is breast-feeding and does not want to take any medication so she lives with the intense and continuing pain. Within a few weeks, she can no longer stand it so she goes to see her physician who orders blood work, does a complete physical and as a result, sends her to see an orthopedist who x-rays and does a bone density study. The diagnosis comes back as osteoporosis and it is found she has fractured three of her lumbar and four of her cervical vertebra.”
Osteoporosis is a detrimental bone condition, the tissue in the bones deteriorate and thus the bones become progressively brittle which presents a risk for rupture. Osteoporosis impacts more than 44 million Americans and is linked to a suggested 2 million bone fractures each year. According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, the amount of fissures due to osteoporosis may escalate above 3 million by the year 2025. Osteoporosis is typically undetected and advances with slight warning signs until a fissure ensues. Effects of osteoporosis encompass height reduction and a curved upper back, anyone can have osteoporosis, however it is prevalent in elderly women and many may break a bone due to this condition. Recovery and prevention are vital in combating osteoporosis, though it may never be eradicated one can take measures to stabilize bone density and gain strength.
in the development and onset of this disease. Sex hormones, such as estrogen previously mentioned, as well as testosterone in men can help build and maintain healthy bones. When these hormone levels decrease, which is not uncommon in old age, the chance for osteoporosis increase significantly.
As generally stated in the introduction, osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that involves the strength and integrity of one’s bones. The WHO defines osteoporosis as, “a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low-bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, increased bone fragility, and its susceptibly to recurrent fractures.” 2 The most important factor to take into account when addressing osteoporosis is the mass of bone, also referred to as, bone mineral density (BMD). As bone mass begins to decline, typically in the older population, specifically postmenopausal women, individuals are at an increased risk for fractures.3 As a result of this serious condition, many people are affected by morbidity, mortality, and economic difficulty.1
What is osteoporosis exactly? Literally, osteoporosis means “porous bone”. Derived from oste/o, meaning bone, and –porosis, meaning the condition of being porous. It is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Clinically defined as a disorder characterized by compromised bone strength leading to an increased risk of fracture (Lane, 2006). Normal bone structure includes an extracellular matrix with mineralized and non-mineralized components, which gives the bones their mechanical properties, as well as collagen and mineralized osteoid cells. Calcium concentration is extremely important is determining the compressive strength of the bone (Bethel, 2015). The structure of bone in an individual with osteoporosis has lost mineralization and collagen due to a decrease in the production of these components as a result, the bones become porous and brittle. Bone is living tissue, constantly being broken down and reformed through out life. Derived from
Osteoporosis is an age related disorder, more common in females compared to males. Osteoporosis is defined as a “skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to increased risk of fractures (Manolagaas, 2014). Osteoporosis is defined as “a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue (What is osteoporosis?2014). Osteoporosis is sometimes also referred as “silent thief” as the bone loss occurs very slowly and silently without any symptoms (Osteoporosis facts & statistics.2014). The most common site for fracture due to osteoporosis is hip followed by humerus (Woltman & den Hoed, 2010) . Osteoporosis can occur at any age, although it is a disorder common in females (especially post-menopausal females). Everyone is prone to osteoporosis (Osteoporosis facts & statistics.2014). According to Osteoporosis Canada, 1 in 3 Canadian females and 1 in 5 Canadian males may suffer fractures due to osteoporosis during their lifetime (Osteoporosis facts & statistics.2014). Canadian health care system spends 1.2 billion dollars for the acute hospitalization caused by osteoporosis and in 2010 the health care system spent 3.9 billion dollars for the total treatment of osteoporosis (Osteoporosis facts & statistics.2014). Osteoporosis can be screened and diagnosed by various methods; however the dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) is commonly used. If the T-score values are less than -1 and greater than -2.5SD it is termed as osteopenia,
There are two types of osteoporosis that have been identified which are primary and secondary. Osteoporotic bones are thin and brittle and are prone to fracture. The bone loss involves both compact and spongy bone. In type I osteoporosis, which occurs typically in postmenopausal women, spongy bone loss predominates, occurring most prominently in the vertebrae and distal radius (Gueldner, Burke, Smiciknas-Wright, 2000). Major complications of type I osteoporosis are crush fractures of the vertebral bodies and the distal end of the radius. Type II, or old-age, osteoporosis is characterized by a proportional loss of compact and spongy bone of the long bones (Gueldner, Burke, Smiciknis-Wright). The most serious fractures of old age are those of
Osteoporosis occurs when bones lose their strength and density. They become fragile, weak, and brittle, this means that the bones are more likely to fracture. Osteoporosis particularly affects women after menopause and in their later years. However, some men may also be affected. Activity and a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D can help prevent osteoporosis. It affects one of every two women and one out of every five men, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Systemic glucocorticoids are the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is described by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a ‘progressive systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture’. Oral glucocorticoids are the low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration main iatrogenic cause of fragility fracture. Relationship between glucocorticoid use and bone loss has been studied and established since 1990. Early studies showed that oral glucocorticoid cause a substantial loss in bone density and other bone markers. Subsequent epidemiological research identified confirmed the link between fracture and oral glucocorticoid use. Fragility fractures are the ultimate clinical endpoint that is targeted to prevent in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures occur in several bone locations. Most osteoporosis-resultant fractures are hip, proximal femur, vertebral, distal radius and ulna, which are often labeled as major osteoporotic fractures. Fracture of the tibia, fibula, patella, ribs, and sacrum are also considered fractures attributable to osteoporosis. A substantial amount of evidence showed increased risk of mortality post fragility fracture. A systematic analysis of epidemiological studies showed that the mortality rate during the first year after hip fracture ranged from 8.4% to 36.0%. Post-fracture mortality rates was associated with vertebral, humerus, and ; while . A significant morbidity
Osteoporosis (meaning ‘porous bone’) is generally an influentially common disease amongst more than 1 million Australians. This disease influences issues that remain to be worked out fragile promoting a higher danger of breaks than in normal bones. Osteoporosis typically transpires when bones lose minerals, such as calcium, more rapidly than the body can replace them, causing the loss of bone thickness (bone thickness or mass). Osteoporosis is commonly referred to as a “silent” disease, as it typically has no symptoms and is occasionally diagnosed until the point when bones break or crack, leaving results of fractures. In Australia, the disease affects one in three women and one in five men aged over 50 years, particularly in the stages of menopause and lower levels of sex steroids hormones, for example,
Distal Radius Fractures (DRF) are common fractures encountered in orthopedics within the elderly. As reported by Koval and Zuckerman (1998) the elderly have an increased number of DRF for numerous reasons including the fragility of osteopenic bone, postmenopausal osteoporosis and as a result of low energy trauma including trips and falls. According to Tortora and Derrickson (2009) they are more common in women than men because women’s bones are smaller, and the production of hormones in women declines dramatically at menopause, whereas only slightly in men. A study by Sennwald (1987) reported that after the age of 50, more than 85% of DRF occur in women, likely attributable to the impact of osteoporosis. Approximately one in seven women
Osteoporosis is described by the NHS as “a condition that weakens bones” and is fairly common, affecting roughly 3 million, with more than 300,000 people receiving treatment each year. Fractures are extremely common as the weakened bones are more susceptible to damage, even coughing may cause vertebral damage. Osteoporosis can be classified as type I or II, “both type I and type II osteoporosis occur through an imbalance between total skeletal bone formation and bone resorption which is sustained over many years” (Theobald, 2005), and are related to a lack of vitamin
Bone disease is a silent disorder that may lead to pain and deformity. (NCBI, paragraph 1). NCBI resources mention that1.5 million osteoporotic fractures in the U.S leads to more than half a million of hospitalizations, about 800,000 emergency room encounters, about more than 2,600,000 physician office visits, and about 180,000 individuals are placed into nursing homes. (NCBI, paragraph 2), Caring for fractures from bone disease is expensive, ranging from $12 to $18 billion per year in 2002 and will increase over the years causing individuals and their families a devastating impact. (NCBI paragraph3). Some die from bone disease, many spirals downward in their physical and mental health that result in death, especially during the first year after the fracture. (NCBI, paragraph 4). People who suffer from fractures experience severe pain, height loss, lose the ability to dress themselves, stand up, and walk causing them to be at risk of pressure sores pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. (NCBI, paragraph 5)