Describe and evaluate two approaches/theories in Development Psychology What is the definition of attachment? If you look it up in a dictionary it explains that it is ‘an emotional bond between an infant or toddler and primary caregiver, a strong bond being vital for the child’s normal behavioural and social development’. That strong bond between infant and caregiver is believed to happen between the ages of 6-8 months although Bowlby (1958) suggests that the infants are born into this world pre-programmed to form attachments, they have innate behaviours in the way of crying, smiling, crawling and cooing which will stimulate attention and comforting responses from the caregivers. These behaviours are called social releasers. Kagan et al (1978)
Attachments are intrinsic to a child’s development both in the short term and for the duration of their lives. Infants have an innate need to develop an attachment with their mother to ensure their survival and are equipped with evolutionary characteristics called social releasers; physical social releasers such as large eyes and a small chin are found to be more aesthetically pleasing to the parents so they are more likely to care for them and behavioural social releasers for example, crying; very young infants typically only cry if they 're hungry, cold or in pain (Gross 2015 p535) this alerts the parents to an infants immediate need. At around 7 or 8 months of age children begin to make specific attachments for reasons other than survival, children display proximity maintaining behaviour normally with the mother,
Introduction Infant attachment is the first relationship a child experiences and is crucial to the child’s survival (BOOK). A mother’s response to her child will yield either a secure bond or insecurity with the infant. Parents who respond “more sensitively and responsively to the child’s distress” establish a secure bond faster than “parents of insecure children”. (Attachment and Emotion, page 475) The quality of the attachment has “profound implications for the child’s feelings of security and capacity to form trusting relationships” (Book). Simply stated, a positive early attachment will likely yield positive physical, socio-emotional, and cognitive development for the child. (BOOK)
' (Haith, 2014b, p. 466) Although a secure attachment does not occur from birth, ‘babies show signs of attachment through smiling, eye contact and crying. ' (Brandon et al., 2015) This shows the child 's main caregiver needs to begin to bond with their child for them to form a secure attachment. Bowlby believed ‘caregivers who neglect their children, bring up avoidant children. ' (Larose, & Bernier, 2001, p. 96-120). ‘Ambivalent/resistant children show negative behaviours to gain attention from others. ' (Kobak et al., 1993, p. 231-245) These statements show children who have an insecure attachment with their caregiver have a risk in behaviour problems. They will also have a less chance of developing their social and emotional skills effectively.
Perhaps the most influential explanation of attachment was presented by John Bowlby who began developing his ideas in the 1940s. Bowlby was commissioned by the World Health Organisation to investigate whether young children were likely to be harmed if they are separated from their mothers in the early years. (Hayes, 1996). Bowlby (1951) reported that infants possesses an innate need to attach to one main attachment figure (this was usually the mother). According to Hayes (1996), this is a special relationship which is qualitatively different from the relationship they form with any other kind of person. He described this as the process of monotropy; however, Bowlby did not deny that babies formed lots of attachments. (Bailey et al. 2008).
The development of attachment bonds to other biological figures plays an important role in emotional development. Throughout life, an individual will form several relationships, some of which will be sincere and intimate while others will be superficial. However, collectively these relationships provide the foundation of our communities, families, and friendships
Bowlby’s attachment theory has greatly influenced practice. His theory of attachment explains the importance of having a figure that the child shares a strong bond with. Having an attachment can significantly support a child’s development as Barbara Woods suggests that “his theory of attachment proposed that attachment is innate in
By definition, “attachment is the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver (Romero; Perry).” During the first eight months of life, an infant will typically form an emotional attachment to a caregiver. The kind of attachment is based on the nurture and care the infant receives. The type of attachment between an infant and a caregiver can help determine the child’s personality and development (Romero).
Attachment, according to Emde (1982) is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another, across time and space. John Bowlby, and Evolutionist, believed that attachment was pre-programmed. In order for us to survive as a species, we needed to attach to a significant other; that its innate in us to single out a few specific individuals around us and attach to them, an so providing a survival advantage. Bowlby rationalised that the attachment between a mother and infant was unlike any other bond; very unlike the bond an infant would develop with another human. He coined it ‘Monotrophy’.
Attachment Styles and Its Effects on Adulthood Attachment is the psychological and emotional connection experienced between living things, and acts as a medium that “connects one person to another person across time and space”(Mcleod, 2009). Attachment is not only limited to existing in human beings but has been seen in grown mammals and their young offspring. Although it may seem that attachment can be mutually shared, Mcleod (2009) found that “attachment does not have to be reciprocal”. There has been numerous research and studies done on the topic of attachment, but most of the credit behind attachment studies goes to John Bowlby. John Bowlby expanded on the research of Freud’s theories about love and was the psychoanalyst who coined the term ‘attachment. He believed that attachment styles in early childhood affect adults and their future relationships. His theory strongly suggested that children come into this world with an innate desire to form an attachment with others, in order to survive. Mcleod (2009) found that “attachment can be understood within an evolutionary context in that the caregiver provides safety and security for the infant”.
Name: Samantha Louise Jones Unit 113: Promote the well-being and resilience of children and young people. Unit code: SCMP2 Unit reference number: F/600/9780 QCF Level: 3 Credit Value: 4 Guided learning hours: 30 1. Understand the importance of promoting positive well-being and resilience of children and young people. Factors that influence well-being of
In the first few months of life, the sole purpose of any child’s behaviour is to survive. This, more often than not, results in actions that reduce the risk of harm and increase the chances of longevity. Of these behaviours, some argue that the most influential is attachment behaviour. “Attachment behaviour is any form of behaviour that results in a person attaining or maintaining proximity to some other clearly identified individual who is conceived as better able to cope with the world”(Bowlby, 1982). Therefore, children will make an effort to stay close to and under the protection of their primary caregiver. According to Webster, “through interactions with their primary caregiver, the child develops expectations and understandings about the workings of relationships. These mental representations of relationships become internalized to the degree that they influence feelings, thought and behaviour automatically and unconsciously” (1999, p.6). Moreover, the response of the identified individual plays a huge role in the child’s perception of the outside world. If the caregiver responds to the child’s needs in a caring and protective manner, the child will feel safe and comfortable in his or her surroundings. If, on the other hand, the caregiver is often emotionally and/or physically unavailable, the child is likely to
Exploration of Attachment Theory Fully describe the theory including the main concepts and principles Attachment theory is a concept that explores the importance of attachment in respect to direct development. “It is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space” (Bowlby, 1969; McLeod, 2009).
Attachment is the foundation for a strong relationship between caregivers and children. Children usually become attached to the person who cares for them most often during their first year of life. There is secure and insecure attachment which can affect a child and their future.
Learning theory of attachment proposes that infants form attachments based on the provision of food. In other words, an infant will form attachments to whoever who feeds it. This theory also involves the processes of classical and operant conditioning because infants form attachments by learning that some people provide comforts and responses. The more widely accepted evolutionary theory of attachment states that humans and biologically set to form attachments with others to ensure survival. The theory also claims that it is care and responsiveness which forms attachment instead of food. To explain, the greater the response towards an infant’s signal, such as crying, smiling and clinging, the more likely it is to form an attachment with the infant. With complex series of interactions, full attachment may be formed between the caregiver and the