John Bowlby, the backbone of attachment theories will be discussed throughout this essay to explain and evaluate the key theories of attachment. Health and well-being which is made up of four factors ‘physical, intellectual, emotional and social ' (Jones, 2016), will also be discussed within the essay. The definition of attachment is ‘an act of attaching or the state of being attached. ' (Dictionary, 1400) This will be showed in the assignment, using theorists to analyse the meaning. Sharing the strengths and weaknesses in some theorists will help conclude this assignment.
EFT is an attachment based research theory, that suggest that couples have strong need to stay connected (bond) to each other. As such, bonding is very important in marital relationships and if the bond is disappearing, then stressful and negative cycle pattern begins to emerge. Thus, the goal of EFT is to support couples walk through a process of healing (overcoming the negative patterns, rebuilding the connection again, and fortify the bond) (Goldenberg, Stanton, & Goldenberg, 2017). From the assessment that has carried out by the therapist it is clear that Tam and Lisa do not have what it takes to manage or settle conflicts without it escalating into something else. As such, the bonding between them is disappearing and it’s becoming stressful and disturbing to them and their children. Because Jimmy and Emma even though do not see their parent fight or disagree in the open but they can sense the disconnection between their parent and feel the tension whenever both of them where at home. More so, because of the negative pattern that has emerge as a result of lack of secure attachment, there is no more interactions between the couple and each others needs are not met. From the case conceptualization, and to decide what treatment plan should target or focus on the therapist will use the step-by-step treatment manual provided by Johnson and Greenberg (1995) as cited in (Goldenberg et al., 2017) for the therapy process:
Attachment styles influence relational patterns between a married couple and their children. These attachment relational patterns known as anxious, avoidant, and secure base styles are a product of the interactions experienced in early childhood with their caregivers. It affects people’s intercommunication with others all through their life span. Individuals’ attachment style involves a systematic pattern of relational assumptions, emotions, and behavior that develop from the subjective constructs definitive of attachment experiences throughout their lives. Negative relational patterns increase the likelihood of marital violence in the home. When experiencing stress related life issues, conflicts may arise due to substandard communication skills leading to physical violence, aggressiveness, resulting in harsh spousal disputes. A positive upswing in marital and family harmony occurs when healthy communication skills develop along with secure based attachment characteristics, such as, humility, gratitude, and forgiveness of self and others. These characteristics provide coping mechanisms that establish a positive self-identity and healthy social interaction with others. As the anxious and avoidant relational styles exercise these positive characteristics, in time, they develop a positive view of self and others while learning to work through life stressors, which benefit the marriage and family.
The attachment theory is a theory by Bowlby that refers to the joint mutual relationship that babies experience and develop with their primary caregiver (Bowlby, 1982). This theory is not supported by research in various sceneries. However, even though the attachment theory began as an initiative, the clinical application to the daily clinical understanding of adult mental health complications has penned red behind the current available research. I believe that the theory can give valuable insight into both the developing nature of recognized psychiatric disorders as well as in the development of the therapeutic relationship in adults. My position provides an overview of (a) the application of attachment theory to diverse psychopathologies
The Development of Attachment Theory and Its Strengths and Limitations English psychiatrist John Bowlby is a leading and influential figure within the history of social reform. His work has influenced social work policies and legislation relating to child psychiatry and psychology. Bowlby was trained as a psychoanalyst, and was influenced by Freudians theories, but became influenced again in his attachment theory by the work of ethologists. The ethologists theory concentrates on looking at the role parents play rather than only the child. Bowlby believes that parenting has strong ties with biology and it explains why there are such strong emotions attached.
John Bowlby’s Attachment theory is relevant to serial murderers since it looks at the child’s early life experiences, focusing on the bond between the mother and child (Bretherton, 1992). It argues that a break in the bond will lead the child to a life of crime and delinquency. In this paper we will discuss two points. The first point is discussing Aileen’s Wuornos life from childhood to adulthood and the second point is explaining how her life is relevant to Bowlby’s Attachment Theory. We will finally know what happened in Aileen Wuornos’ life that caused her to become one of the most famous female serial killers of all time.
As an aspiring professional counselor, it is important to have a solid understanding of the growth and development of children can be affected by attachment to primary caregivers within the first years of life. Attachment theory, which was developed by Erikson and Bowling, describes how the first year of interactions with caregivers serves as model, which heavily influences how children navigate in the world, even into adulthood (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). In this week’s assignment, we are challenged to think through the implications of attachment theory as it relates to children who are adopted and children who are raised by their biological parent(s). With the help of various research articles, textbook readings, and case studies, I
Attachment theory is accepted by most psychologists and psychiatrists as the best explanation for how we develop the capacity to form relationships with others and relate to our environment. It asserts that the methods we use to relate to others, manage our needs, express our demands, and shape our expectations for the world are rooted in our relationships with our early caregivers. Through these interactions we learn to balance our feelings and need states with others and to establish our varying degrees of independence, dependence, power, and control. Attachment also impacts self-esteem through the experience of conflict with caregivers.
The family is the fundamental source of attachment, socialization, and nurturing (Zimic & Jakic, 2012). When attachment needs are not met as the result of substance use multiple aspects of the family are affected. These include experiencing unmet developmental needs, poorly developed familial relationships, financial difficulties, and emotional and behavioral problems. In addition, children living in this environment have an increased risk of developing attachment and substance use disorders as well (Zimic & Jakic, 2012). The consequences of substance use disorders have a profound impact on the family system (Landers, Howsare, & Byrne, 2013). The family environment carries information indicating how substance use disorders begin and evolve. Substance use disorders create a dysfunctional family unit perpetuating emotional and behavioral patterns that result in negative outcomes (Landers et al.,
How an individual reacts and interprets everyday situations can be influenced by many different causes. Whereas these causes can range from individual to environmental in nature, the earliest of our preferences and relationships can go on to dictate our actions and beliefs. None of these are as important as the bond shared between a mother and child. As Mary Ainsworth once said “… [A] mothers ' behaviour appears to be the most important factor in establishing a secure or insecure attachment.” (Ainsworth et al., 1978; Isabella & Belsky, 1991, as cited in Martin, Carlson & Buskist, 2013). This essay will aim to discuss the consequences of secure and insecure attachments on intellectual, emotional and social child developmental. It will look briefly at children without their mother as their initial attachments, then it shall cover disorganised attachment. It shall then explain how attachment types suggest how children will react in social situations, their emotional well-being and how successful they are academically.
Attachment theory is a psychological model that provides an influential, biologically driven explanation of how the parent-child interaction emerges and how it influences human development over a life span. The term attachment refers to the complex set of related thought processes and behaviors towards a primary care giver. The attachment behaviors are biologically guided by our natural instinct for protection and safety. This evolved behavioral system organizes human motivation, emotions, cognition, and memory. The attachment relationship that an individual creates in infancy effects their growth, behavior in other relationships, risk taking, and mental health through their human development (George, 2014, p. 97). I chose to use attachment theory to understand Carla’s current situation because the theory has been powerful in understanding the range of relationships patterns that develop between mother and their infants and children. It has been shown that children who experience inadequate parenting are at a much higher risk for an insecure attachment style and experience more interpersonal difficulties in adulthood especially with relationships. Carla grew up in a very inconsistent environment her whole life. Using attachment theory I am analyzing how her childhood shaped who she is as a woman and the choices she made that ultimately brought her to where she is today.
There are a number of influences that contribute to the formation of attachments and the differences among individuals. One influence on attachment is the amount of time a caregiver spends with an infant. The amount of time can be affected by the age, health, and social status of the mother. For example, a younger, teenage mother, may return to school in order to complete their education. Returning to school can preoccupy a mother and create a disconnect when an infant’s distress and behaviors are not attended to or ignored. Another example of how the amount of time spent with an infant can be affected is a single-mother or a mother who returns to work within the sensitive time of an infant’s development. Similar to the younger mother example,
Many psychologists have come and gone, and many different theoretical orientations have been developed. With each orientation has come a new perspective on development, behaviour and mental processes. Some are similar, yet others could not be more contradictory. Attachment is one such theoretical orientation, developed by John Bowlby out of his dissatisfaction with other existing theories. Although Bowlby rejected psychoanalytical explanations for early infant bonds, the theory of attachment was influenced in part by the principles of psychoanalysis; in particular the observations by Ana Freud and Dorothy Burlingham of young children separated from
Attachment theory is a concept that explores the importance of attachment in respect to direct development. “It is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space” (Bowlby, 1969; McLeod, 2009). It is the relationship that develops within the first year of the infant’s life between them and their caregiver. The theory also relates to the quality of the attachment that is shown in the behavior of the infant (Rieser-Danner, 2016). Attachment theory shows that infants need a close nurturing relationship with their caregiver in order to have a healthy relationship. Lack of response from the caregiver